Europe Transformed 14blackboard

Europe Transformed 14blackboard - Chapter 14 Chapter 14...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14 Chapter 14 Europe Transformed Reformation and Unification Reformation and Unification Early 16th Century to the middle 18th century (1500­1750) Unification of France, England, and Russia Creation of the Austrian Empire – Caused the fall of The Western Holy Roman Empire Terms Mercantilism, Joint stock company, absolutism, divine right monarchy, constitutional monarchy EURASIA EURASIA Eurasia is a large landmass covering about 53,990,000 km² (or about 10.6%) of the Earth's surface. It is recognized as a single continent, which borders are somewhat arbitrary. Church and Religion on the Church and Religion on the Eve of the Reformation Corruption in the Catholic church Renaissance popes failed to meet church’s spiritual needs – Concerned with money and used church to advance careers and wealth People wanted meaningful religious expression and certainty of salvation Indulgences The Reformation of the The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century Protestant Reformation – Christian church divided into Catholic and Protestant groups Background to the Reformation – Changes in 15th C paved way for upheavals in 16th C Growth of State Power – Renaissance monarchs wanted concentration of authority, suppressed nobility, controlled church, wanted new sources of revenues to increase royal power and grow military forces – Niccoló Machiavelli, The Prince Expansion of political power as a means to restore and maintain order Abandon morality as the basis for the analysis of political activity Martin Luther and the Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany Monk and professor at the University of Wittenberg – Looking for assurance of salvation Catholic Church emphasized both faith and good works – Luther arrived at the idea of justification by faith alone Immediate problem was the selling of indulgences – Ninety­five Theses, 1517 – Excommunication, 1521 The religious movement became a revolution – Support of rulers in 300 states of the Holy Roman Empire – Lutheran churches were in the hands of the states – New religious services replaced the Catholic Mass: bible reading, preaching word of God, and song The Spread of the The Spread of the Protestant Reformation Calvin and Calvinism – John Calvin (1509­1564) Doctrine of predestination Reform of the city of Geneva, Switzerland, 1536 Politics and the Wars of Religion in the Sixteenth Century Philip II of Spain and Militant Catholicism (Jesuits) – Strict conformity to Catholicism; strong monarchical authority – Attempted to crush Calvinism – Revolt in Dutch provinces; after 12­yr battle, new modern independent Dutch state – Beginning of 17th C, Spanish treasury was empty, armed forces obsolescent, government inefficient The England of Elizabeth The England of Elizabeth Queen Elizabeth I, 1558­1603, daughter of Henry VIII England became leader of Protestant nations of Europe Laid foundations for a world empire Religious policy based on moderation and compromise New Act of Supremacy – Elizabeth “the only supreme governor” of church and state – Church of England was Protestant and moderate – Defeated the Spanish Armada – – – – Social Changes in the Social Changes in the Renaissance Nobles – 2­3 percent – dominated society, holding political posts and served as advisers to the king Peasants – 85­90 percent – Resented social superiors and wanted greater share of benefits from their labors – Resentful peasantsled to support of religious reform movements Merchants and artisans – Patricians – traders, industrialists, bankers – Burghers – shopkeepers, artisans, guildmasters, guildsmen Propertyless workers and unemployed – 30­40 percent Earning pitiful wages, lived squalid and miserable lives Supported radical religious reform Economic Trends in the Economic Trends in the Seventeenth Century Mercantilism – Prosperity of a nation depended on a plentiful supply of bullion (gold and silver) – Needed a favorable balance of trade: exports greater than imports – High tariffs on foreign goods to reduce imports and prevent competition – Colonies source of raw materials and markets for finished goods – Joint­stock company led to growth of commercial capitalism – 80 % of Europeans still worked the land – Peasants free of serfdom but saw didn’t improve their lives Seventeenth Century Crises: Seventeenth Century Crises: Revolution and War Thirty Years’ War (1618­1648) – – Rivalry between France, Spain, and Holy Roman Empire Peace of Westphalia, 1648 A Military Revolution? – Changes in science of warfare between 1560­1650 – Increased use of firearms and cannons – Needed large standing armies (conscription) – Needed more revenue from taxes – economic burden The Practice of Absolutism The Practice of Absolutism France under Louis XIV – Louis XIV (1643­1715), The Sun King Divine­right monarchy – Political Institutions Control of central policy­making machinery King has authority over foreign policy, war and peace, secular power of the crown against religious authority, ability to levy taxes. Prussia – Frederick William “the Great” Elector (1640­1688) – Frederick I, First king of Prussia, 1701 Austria – Expansion of territory – Austria ­ a collection of territories held together by Habsburg emperor: Archduke of Austria, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary – Each had its own laws and political life From Moscovy to Russia From Moscovy to Russia Ivan IV, the Terrible, (1533­1584) – First to take the title tsar Peter “the Great” (1689­1725) – – – – Trip west, 1697­1698 Plans to westernize Russia Reorganize army and navy Divided Russia into provinces England and Limited Monarchy England and Limited Monarchy England was resistance to absolute monarchy Conflict Between King and Parliament James VI of Scotland became James I (1603­1625) of England – This is the King James that printed his version of the Bible while he started the English slave trade with the first shipped named “Good ship Jesus” – Divine right of kings which alienated Parliament Charles I (1625­1649) – Divine­right monarchy and religious differences added to hostility between Charles I and Parliament Civil War and Commonwealth Civil war (1642­1648) won by parliamentary forces led by New Model Army of Oliver Cromwell – Charles I executed, monarchy abolished and named a republic or commonwealth – Parliament dispersed by force and military dictatorship established – Monarchy restored after Cromwell’s death in 1658 Restoration and a Restoration and a “Glorious Revolution” Charles II (1660­1685) – – – Parliament suspicious of his Catholic leanings Declaration of Indulgence, 1672 Charles forced to suspend the declaration James II (1685­1688) Open and devout Catholic Religion once again area of conflict Birth of a son, 1688, assuring Catholic monarchy Throne offered to William of Orange and his wife Mary, the Protestant daughter of James II – Bill of Rights – – – – ...
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