Unformatted text preview: Mother Earth
Mother Planet Earth Earth is 1 of 9 planets in of Solar Systems of which there are billions of solar systems throughout this vast universe. It would be extremely naive to even remotely suggest that this planet has the only living species.
The Earth is approximately 4.5 billion years old. There is no substantial evidence on how it was formed; humans have only theorized how this has come about.
After all most vegetation was formed, living organisms developed.
The first organisms lived in the ocean and later began to utilize oxygen. The first organism with a brain was a flat worm which later formed a vertebrate.
The stage was the formation of fish, which its fins and gills Dating of Time
Dating of Time
The dating system that United States as well as the Western World uses is known as the Gregorian Calendar.
– Named after Pope Gregory XIII in 1582. In this system, events are dated by counting backward from the birth of Christ Events before the birth of Christ are dated B.C. B.C. stands for….? (Before Christ) Events after the birth of Christ are dated A.D. A.D. stands for…?
(Anno Domini) Latin for “in the year of the Lord.” Thus an event that occurred 200 years before the birth of Christ is 200 BC Likewise, an event that occurred 200 years after the birth of Christ is 200 AD or just 200. However, since world history encompasses more than a western perspective, historians use other abbreviations for dating time. Such as?
BCE (before common era) Both 200 BC and 200 BCE are the same
CE (common era) Both 200 AD and 200 CE are the same Terms to Reference Time
Terms to Reference Time A decade represents…
10 years Every 10 years represents a decade; 60’s, 70’s, 80’s, 90’s, etc. A century represents…
100 years Since we use birth of Christ as our reference, the 1st century BCE are years 100 BCE to 1 BCE. Likewise the 2nd century BCE are years 200 BCE to 101 BCE. So an event that took place in 350 BCE is in what century?
4th century BCE Similarly an event that took place 350 CE is in the 4th century CE A millennium represents…
1,000 years The first millennium BCE refers to years…?
1000 BCE to 1 BCE. The second millennium CE refers to years?
1001 CE to 2000 CE Understanding History
Understanding History History is a clock people use to tell their historical culture and political time of day to locate themselves on the map of human geography. History tells them where they have been, where they are and what they are… But most importantly, history tells a people where they still must go and what they still must be. The relationship of history to its people is the same as the relationship of a mother to her child. Identifying Terms
Identifying Terms Appropriately identifying people is very challenging due to various terms still currently used that were initially based on the domination and colonization of others.
For example, the 3 Race theory: (Caucasoid, Negroid/Africoid, Mongoloid) created in by Europeans in the 17th century does not effectively provide information on who these people are and neglects millions of indigenous people in North and South America, Australia, Central Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Other Generic terms: White, Black, Hispanic, Latino, Middle Eastern, Arab, etc. are also used to describe what one looks like, culture and/or language one practices, and or region they may be from. These social and political terms however fail to provide holistic consideration for appropriate identification. Ex.? 3 Identifying terms: Land, Ethnicity/Culture, History. Land: Continents, Countries, Provinces, and States Continental: European, Asian, South American, Australian, African, etc.
Nationality Ex. Nigerian Ethnicity Themes in World History
Themes in World History Politics and Government Historians have sought to study the structure of societies to learn: how people are governed, what people held political power, and the relationship of the elite and the rest of society. Religion and Philosophy Throughout history, people have sought to find a deeper understanding of human life. Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity, Islam as well as traditional religions have influenced people’s lives in various ways. Science and Technology People have made scientific discoveries and technological innovations that have advanced previous societies. Interaction and Exchange Interaction with people from various regions have influenced the exchange of the various themes mentioned above “Garden of Eden” Where were the first humans born? Which came first Adam or Eve? Where were the first human bones found? What was the former place people believe humans came from? Where was the first civilization on earth? First Humans
First Humans Hominids “Lucy” lived in Africa 34 million years ago
– Australopithecines or ape man
Homo habilis lived 2.6 millions years ago
– (Handy human) Began making tools and were bipedals
Homo erectus lived 1.8 millions years ago
– (Upright human) Made more advanced tools (first migrate) Homo sapiens lived 250,000 years ago
– (Wise human) were the first to bury their dead
Homo sapien sapiens arrived 200,000 years ago
– (Wise wise human) Born in African gave birth to all humans on Earth
Not only did the genesis of human life begin in Africa, but all stages of human development occurred in Africa. In addition, the last homo sapien sapien was born in Africa. Human Development
Paleolithic Age (Stone Age) The earliest tools were made of stone Persons relied on hunting and gathering for their daily food. Nomadic, Role of men and women
Neolithic Age (New Stone Age) Used more advanced technology Persons began cultivating food and domesticating animals. Scientific studies overwhelming support not only the first humans were born in Africa but the first person was an African woman. Thus, the definition of homo sapien sapien is synonymous with African women. Empirical evidence is found through archeological evidence (skeleton/bone marrow), biological evidence through radio carbon (melanin testing), genetic evidence through mitochondrial DNA. In addition, it is now supported through recent studies of DNA, that African people are the world's aboriginal people and that all modern humans can ultimately trace their ancestral roots back to Africa. If not for the primordial migrations of early African people, humanity would have remained physically Africoid, and the rest of the world outside of the Since the first modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) were of African birth, the African presence globally can be demonstrated through the history of the African people that have inhabited the world within the span of humanity. Not only are African people the aboriginal people of the planet, however, there is abundant evidence to show that people of African descent created and sustained many of the world's earliest and most enduring civilizations but also have the genetic capability Phenotypes
Phenotypes Phenotypes are physical attributes that differentiate groups of living organism from each other: fish, birds, cats, dogs, bears, humans, etc.
All humans have African ancestry, however there phenotypes changed based on environmental elements. The first humans (Africans) were not darkskinned but brown; yet they have the DNA capability to produced a darker hue. This was a survival mechanism.
In addition, Africans hair was purposeful coiled “kinky” to keep moisture to tolerate the intense heat.
Those Africans that migrated out of Africa adapted to their environment. For example, those who went to the highlands of Asia developed a epicanthic fold above their eyes to Melanin/Color
Melanin/Color Melanin serves predominantly as a pigment. The most common form of biological melanin is produces a brownblack complexion.
– Melanin is found in not only skin pigmentation but also hair and eye color. It also is vital mineralization of the bones and interaction with ultraviolet light of the sun. Only those with the highest amount can produce others with the same level. Similarly, they can also produce it can reproduce others with a lesser amount (those with lesser are more equipped to live in colder climates.) 2 Little Girls
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- Spring '11