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Unformatted text preview: Positive Reinforcement: Presentation of a pleasant stimulus Negative Reinforcement: Presentation of an adverse stimulus Punishment Presentation (Positive) Punishment: Presentation of a Punisher Removal (Negative) Punishment: disappearance or removal of a reinforcer Primary Reinforcer – event or object that is inherently reinforcing (e.g., food , water) – fulfills a biological need Secondary Reinforcer- A reinforcer that does not directly satisfy a biological need, (e.g., money, praise) Shaping- a gradual process of reinforcing an organism for successive approximations of a complex behavior Behavior Modification: a common technique Token Reinforcement System: system in which tokens (e.g., points) earned for “good” behavior can be exchanged for someone desired reward. Problem: extrinsic rewards can change existing internal motivation to external motivation...
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