Upload-P431-Chapter 8 - Chapter 8: Sensory systems Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8: Sensory systems Chapter Vision II. Audition III. Somatosenses IV. Gustation V. Olfaction I. I. I. A. B. C. D. E. F. Vision The stimulus The eye The photoreceptors The primary visual pathway The striate cortex The visual association cortex A. The stimulus A. Wavelength determines hue. Intensity determines brightness. B. The eye C. The photoreceptors contain photopigments, which consist of an opsin and retinal. opsin Absorb Light Photopigment -----------------> opsin + retinal Receptor potential: hyperpolarization of Receptor photoreceptors caused by the splitting of the photopigments. photopigments. D. The primary visual pathway. D. Ganglion cells (nasal hemiretinas) ↓ decussate via decussate ↓ the optic chiasm Contralateral side of lateral geniculate Contralateral ↓ Striate cortex (Brodmann’s area 17) Striate Ganglion cells (temporal hemiretinas) Ganglion ↓ Ipsilateral side of lateral geniculate ↓ Striate cortex (Brodmann’s area 17) Striate E. The striate cortex E. Simple cells: respond to straight lines in a Simple certain orientation. certain Complex cells: respond to particularly Complex oriented lines and moving lines. oriented Neurons respond to retinal disparity. F. The visual association cortex. F. Dorsal Stream Ventral Stream Posterior parietal Inferior temporal cortex (where) cortex (what) ↑ or ↑ ↑ Prestriate cortex (Extrastriate cortex) ↑ Striate cortex II. II. Audition A. B. C. D. E. The stimulus The ear The hair cells The auditory pathway The auditory cortex A. The stimulus A. Frequency determines pitch. Intensity determines loudness. B. The ear C. The hair cells C. Inner and outer hair cells: contain cilia. Inner The movment of cilia produces changes in the The membrane potential and the release of neurotransmitters. neurotransmitters. D. The auditory pathway Hair cells Hair ↓ Bipolar cells ↓ Ipsilateral cochlear nuclei ↓ Ipsilateral superior olivary nuclei or Contralateral superior olivary nuclei Contralateral (via trapzoid body) (via ↓ Inferior colliculi ↓ Medial geniculate nuclei ↓ Auditory cortex (Brodmann’s area 41) E. The auditory cortex E. Superior temporal gyrus (Heschl’s gyrus). III. Somatosenses III. A. B. C. D. E. The stimuli The skin Pacinian corpuscle and Free nerve ending The somatosensory pathways The somatosensory cortex Somatosenses: provide information about what happens on the surface of our body and inside it. inside A. The stimuli Sensation of pressure: caused by mechanical Sensation stimulation of the skin. stimulation Sensation of pain: caused by tissue damage. B. The skin B. Consists of epidermis, dermis, and Consists subcutaneous tissue, Contains receptors including Pacinian Contains corpuscle and free nerve ending. corpuscle C. Pacinian corpuscle and Free nerve endings Pacinian corpuscles: touch receptors. Pacinian Free nerve endings: Pain receptors. D. The somatosensory pathways D. The dorsal-column medial-lemniscus system: The fine touch. fine The anterolateral system: pain and The temperature. temperature. E. The somatosensory cortex E. Postcentral gyrus (Brodmann’s areas 1, 2, 3). IV. Gustation IV. A. B. C. The stimuli The taste receptors The gustation pathways A. The stimuli: chemicals. chemicals. B. The taste receptors Saltiness receptors. Sourness receptors. Sourness Sweetness receptors. Bitterness receptors. Bitterness C. The gustation pathway C. through facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus through nerves. nerves. *ipsilaterally represented in the brain. IV. Olfaction IV. A. B. C. The stimulus The olfactory receptors The olfactory pathway A. The stimulus: chemicals. chemicals. B. The olfactory receptors: several hundred different receptors, each several sensitive to different odorants. sensitive C. The olfactory pathway C. Receptors ↓ Olfactory nerve ↓ Olfactory bulb ↓ Olfactory tract ↓ Pyriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, amygdala ...
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