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Upload-P431-Chapter 5&7 (1) - Chapters 5&7...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapters 5&7: Neural communication II Chapters I. Neurotransmitters Small molecules A. Acetylcholine B. Monoamines C. Amino acids Peptide Gases II. Pharmacology of synapses III. Psychoactive drugs I. Neurotransmitters I. Small molecules A. Acetylcholine (Ach): A. linked to Alzheimer’s disease. linked Synthesis: choline + acetate → Ach choline Ach Two types of Ach receptors: Nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. B. Monoamines B. Catecholamines: dopamine, norepinephrine, Catecholamines: epinephrine. epinephrine. Indolamines: serotonin. 1. Dopamine (DA): linked to Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. schizophrenia. Synthesis: Tyrosine → L-DOPA → DA Tyrosine L-DOPA Five types of DA receptors: Five D,D,D,D,D 2. Norepinephrine (NE): mood-elevating effects. mood-elevating Synthesis: Tyrosine → L-DOPA → DA → NE Tyrosine L-DOPA Two types of NE receptors: α, β . 3. Serotonin (5-HT): involved in the regulation of mood and aggressive behavior. aggressive Synthesis: Tryptophan → 5-HTP → 5-HT Tryptophan 5-HTP Four types of 5-HT receptors: Four 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4 5-HT *Overproduction of the monoamines is *Overproduction prevented by monoamine oxidase (MAO). prevented C. Amino acid C. 1. Glutamic acid: the principal excitatory Glutamic neurotransmitter in the brain. neurotransmitter Two classes of receptors: Two NMDA and non-NMDA receptors. NMDA 1. GABA: an inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA: implicated in Huntington’s chorea. implicated Two types of receptors: GABAa and GABAb receptors. Peptide: short chains of amino acids Gases: Nitric oxide (NO) Carbon monoxide (CO) II. Pharmacology of synapses II. Agonists: mimic or increase the effects of Agonists: neurotransmitters. neurotransmitters. Antagonists: block or decrease the effects of Antagonists: neurotransmitters. neurotransmitters. Steps in synaptic transmission: Synthesis of neurotransmitter ↓ Storage in synaptic vesicles ↓ Release of neurotransmitter ↓ Activation of receptors ↓ Termination of the postsynaptic effects III. Psychoactive drugs III. A. Sedatives: cause relaxation, sedation, or loss A. of consciousness. of By two mechanisms: 1. Decreasing the metabolic activity of neurons, 1. 2. Increasing the sensitivity of GABAa 2. Increasing receptors. receptors. e.g., barbiturates, benzodiazepines, alcohol, and e.g., anesthetics which reduce surgical shock. anesthetics B. Stimulants: stimulate the CNS and activate behavior. behavior. e.g., nicotine, amphetamine, and cocaine. C. Hallucinogens: modify perception, produce C. hallucinations. hallucinations. e.g., LSD, PCP and THC. D. Psychotherapeutic drugs: D. 1. Antischizophrenic drugs: block DA 1. Antischizophrenic receptors. receptors. 2. Antidepressant drugs: act as monoamine 2. Antidepressant agonists. agonists. E. Narcotic analgesic drugs: reduce pain and are Narcotic addictive. addictive. e.g., opium, heroin, morphine, codeine, and opium, meperidine. meperidine. ...
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