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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1: Development of Neuropsychology
The brain hypothesis I.
C. III. Localization of function
Hierarchical organization The neuron hypothesis I. Neuropsychology?
I. Studies the relation between brain function and
behavior. Overlaps with physiological psychology. Related to neurology. Also a subfield of neuroscience. II. The brain hypothesis
II. Plato: the brain was the source of behavior. Aristotle: the heart was the source of behavior.
Aristotle: Galen: argued for the brain hypothesis. Descartes: interaction of the mind and body
Descartes: produced behavior.
produced Modern neuropsychologists: the mind is a
phenomenon produced by the working of the
nervous system, and the brain controls
behavior. A. Localization of function
different cortical areas have different
functions. Broca’s area: the inferior portion of the left
Broca’s frontal lobe.
frontal Broca’s aphasia: characterized by slow,
Broca’s laborious, nonfluent speech.
laborious, Wernicke’s area: the posterior area of the left
Wernicke’s temporal lobe.
temporal Wernicke’s aphasia: characterized by poor
Wernicke’s speech comprehension and production of
meaningless Arcuate fasciculus: nerve fibers that connect
Arcuate Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas.
Broca’s Conduction aphasia: a difficulty in repeating
Conduction words that were heard.
words Disconnecting the visual area from Wernicke’s
Disconnecting area: inability to read – alexia.
area: Electrophysiological study: on the cortex there
Electrophysiological are topographic representations of the body;
different areas of cortex control different parts
of the body.
of B. Antilocalization of function
lesioning different parts of the cortex did
not produce much motor impairment.
C. Hierarchical organization of function The brain is organized in a functional
The hierarchy, each successively higher level
would control more complex aspects of
behavior. Many parts of the brain are involved in
Many controlling behavior, with each part making
some special contribution.
some III. The neuron hypothesis
III. Nerve net hypothesis: the nervous system is
Nerve composed of a continuous network of
interconnected Neuron hypothesis: the nervous system is
Neuron composed of discrete, autonomous neurons
that can interact but are not physically
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