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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1: Development of Neuropsychology Chapter Neuropsychology? The brain hypothesis I. II. A. B. C. III. Localization of function Antilocalization Hierarchical organization The neuron hypothesis I. Neuropsychology? I. Studies the relation between brain function and Studies behavior. behavior. Overlaps with physiological psychology. Related to neurology. Also a subfield of neuroscience. II. The brain hypothesis II. Plato: the brain was the source of behavior. Aristotle: the heart was the source of behavior. Aristotle: Galen: argued for the brain hypothesis. Descartes: interaction of the mind and body Descartes: produced behavior. produced Modern neuropsychologists: the mind is a Modern phenomenon produced by the working of the nervous system, and the brain controls behavior. behavior. A. Localization of function A. different cortical areas have different different functions. functions. Broca’s area: the inferior portion of the left Broca’s frontal lobe. frontal Broca’s aphasia: characterized by slow, Broca’s laborious, nonfluent speech. laborious, Wernicke’s area: the posterior area of the left Wernicke’s temporal lobe. temporal Wernicke’s aphasia: characterized by poor Wernicke’s speech comprehension and production of meaningless speech. meaningless Arcuate fasciculus: nerve fibers that connect Arcuate Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. Broca’s Conduction aphasia: a difficulty in repeating Conduction words that were heard. words Disconnecting the visual area from Wernicke’s Disconnecting area: inability to read – alexia. area: Electrophysiological study: on the cortex there Electrophysiological are topographic representations of the body; different areas of cortex control different parts of the body. of B. Antilocalization of function B. lesioning different parts of the cortex did lesioning not produce much motor impairment. not C. Hierarchical organization of function The brain is organized in a functional The hierarchy, each successively higher level would control more complex aspects of behavior. behavior. Many parts of the brain are involved in Many controlling behavior, with each part making some special contribution. some III. The neuron hypothesis III. Nerve net hypothesis: the nervous system is Nerve composed of a continuous network of interconnected fibers. interconnected Neuron hypothesis: the nervous system is Neuron composed of discrete, autonomous neurons that can interact but are not physically connected. connected. ...
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