The Waning of the Middle Ages (1)

The Waning of the Middle Ages (1) - The Waning of the...

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Unformatted text preview: The Waning of the Middle Ages Ages Europe in the Fourteenth Europe Century Century Medieval Cosmology Medieval Earth is fixed, unchanging, center of Earth universe universe Heavens surround earth; Moon and stars Heavens move in fixed patterns set by God move Genesis describes creation Task for people: explain change, I.E., Any Task deviation from ‘normal’ deviation The Great Chain of Being: The An Orderly, Hierarchical World God Pope and Kings Pope Priests and Nobles Priests Men Women Children Animals Plants Rocks The Medieval World The Feudal Politics – Personal links between lord and vassal – Vassal receives land in return for service Society of ‘Orders’ – Those who pray: clergy – Those who fight: nobles – Those who work: peasants The Medieval Church The One church: Catholic (meaning universal) Based at Rome, under the Pope Nearly all Europeans were Catholic Christians No uniform theology in the Church, but the ideal No held by most people was of a unified Christendom which embraced all of Europe Christendom Most Europeans were Christian, members of the Most Church Church Small groups of Jews throughout Europe Moorish Islamic states in Spain 1300 1350 Challenges to Medieval World Challenges War – Conflicts between kings & vassals Conflicts – Conflicts between Kings over territory Scarce Resources – “Little Ice Age”: colder, wetter weather – Crop failures & Famines Disease – Plague Religious Dissent – Unity of ‘Christendom’ shattered Crisis in Christendom Crisis In 1309, the Pope, head of the Church, In moved from Rome, the traditional center of Christianity, to Avignon in France, bringing the Church under French control. bringing Avignon Popes neglected spiritual life and Avignon made the Papal court a center of luxurious & extravagant living. extravagant Papal—and Church--authority completely Papal—and discredited while the Popes remained in Avignon until 1376. Avignon Great Schism Great Attempts to restore Papal and Church authority Attempts simply made things worse: simply By 1378, two men claimed to be Pope, one in By Rome; the other in Avignon; Rome; Early in the 15th century, still another attempt to resolve the issue led to a third man claiming to be Pope. be Only in 1415 did a Church Council settle the Only issue by returning the Papacy to Rome, deposing all claimants and electing a new Pope. Crisis in Politics: The Hundred Years War The Dispute over French throne: – Edward III of England claimed throne of Edward France through his mother (daughter of Philip of France; sister of Charles IV). of – Philip VI & French nobility rejected claim: Philip women could not inherit the throne in France, according to the ancient ‘Salic Law’. according – War continued, intermittently, until 1453. – Became a civil war as well as a dynastic war. Chivalry: Chivalry: ‘‘the pomp & circumstance the of glorious war’ of “… banners and pennons [pennants] “… unfurled to the wind, whereon fine gold and azure shone, purple, gules [jewels] and ermine. Trumpets, horns and clarions … sounding through the camp; the Dauphin’s great battle made the earth ring.” earth A New Kind of War New Chivalry applied only to other nobles Infantry troops were ‘mere peasants’ but Infantry they did most of the fighting—and had most of the casualties. most New Weapons changed face of war, New making it more deadly: making – Longbow—arrows could pierce armor – Cannon – Both used first by English Both English Attack Townspeople of Amiens Battle at Crecy 1346 Outcome Outcome England won most battles France won the war England left with only Calais on continent War cost more than either side gained Agriculture, trade, commerce disrupted Taxation increased dramatically In England, gave Parliament new In influence influence Bubonic Plague or Black Death Bubonic Appears to originated in Asia, perhaps Appears China, and spread along the silk route China, In 1346, spread through Catta in Crimea Italian ship, sailing to Sicily, brought Italian plague to Europe in 1347 plague Within five years, plague spread Within throughout Europe throughout Spread of Plague Types of Black Death Types Bubonic plague from bite of an infected flea: flea: – enlarged and inflamed lymph nodes (around enlarged arm pits, neck and groin). – headaches, nausea, aching joints, fever of headaches, 101-105 degrees, vomiting, and a general feeling of illness feeling – 1-7 days to appear – mortality rate was 30-75% Pneumonic Plague Pneumonic Second most common form of Black Second Death Death Spread through droplets from coughs Infected the lungs Slimy sputum tinted with blood, becoming Slimy progressively worse & bright red Mortality rate: 90-95% Effects of Black Death Effects One-third population of Europe died – Down to about 50 million people Think about the consequences of losing Think one third of the population: What impact would that have on the survivors? On the economy? On Europe? economy? Please respond to the question on the Please Discussion Board under ‘Black Death”. Discussion Summary: By 1450, the medieval world was changing rapidly; changing Medieval institutions faced serious Medieval challenges; challenges; The Black Death had begun a The transformation in medieval society; transformation Europe was poised for change! ...
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