102Protestant Reform

102Protestant Reform - Religious Change in Religious Change...

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Unformatted text preview: Religious Change in Religious Change in Europe: Protestant Reformation Sixteenth Century Reformers: Catholic and Protestant Background: Background: The Church in 1500 Poor teaching: Ignorance among rural clergy Magic beliefs among common folk Confused, unclear doctrine Poor Leadership: Some Popes & Bishops concerned w/ political power & wealth Failure to provide spiritual leadership Background Background Poor Example: Immorality, especially violations of celibacy Pluralism, holding more than one office Absentee bishops & priests Simony, buying church offices Nepotism, appointing friends & relatives to church offices Spending church funds on luxuries Calls for Reform Calls for Reform Many Catholics, both clergy and lay people, demanded reform of the Church: Catherine of Siena, a nun, scolded the pope for his lack of leadership; Erasmus, a monk, deplored abuses & insisted that everyone should be able to read the Bible; Lay people like Thomas More called for substantial reforms in the Church. Martin Luther: Martin Luther: Challenge to Papal Authority Born: 1483 Father: Prosperous miner & foundry owner Young Martin: sent to school to study law, but choose to become a monk; 1507: Ordained a priest 1512: Completed doctorate in theology & began teaching at Wittenburg University 1513: Traveled to Rome on a spiritual pilgrimage, but came back outraged at the lax & luxurious living he witnessed among the higher clergy. Martin Luther: 1483-1546 Monastery at Erfurt Luther as a Monk By 1515, Luther struggled with a By 1515, Luther struggled with a Dilemma: How can I, a sinful human being, be saved? Despite prayer, fasting, monastic life, his anxieties increased over the years. Found answer in Paul’s Letter to Romans: ‘the righteous are saved by faith’ not any action of their own. Luther’s insight soon intersected with the local bishop’s need for money. 1517 1517 Local bishop, holder of three dioceses, needed money to pay the Pope for his newest church office & the dispensation for it; Pope authorized sale of indulgences (see next slide for definition) to raise money. Local ruler prohibited sale in Saxony but Residents of Wittenburg rushed across border to buy indulgences in neighboring state. Indulgences Indulgences Originally, remission from penance for sin By 1300, included remission from time in purgatory (punishment still remaining for sins that were forgiven); Supposed to be granted for true spiritual contrition and charitable deeds; By 1517: marketed for living and for the dead: you could buy one for a deceased person! Indulgences Indulgences Johan Tetzel (1465­1519): hired to sell indulgences for the bishop “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs!” Immensely successful Luther was appalled: You can’t buy salvation for yourself or anyone else; you need to have faith in Jesus! Luther’s Challenge: 95 Theses Luther’s Challenge: 95 Theses October 31, 1517: posted on church door Invitation to other theologians to debate Printed & distributed throughout Germany by December Argued no scriptural basis for indulgences Pope had no authority to issue them 1520: Luther Excommunicated Printed Copy of Luther’s 95 Theses Diet of Worms Diet of Worms 1521 Meeting of Rulers & Bishops of Holy Roman Empire. Luther summoned by Emperor Charles V. Ordered to recant (take back his teaching). Luther’s response: ‘I am bound by Scripture and my conscience… Here I stand, I cannot and will not recant anything…. God help me. Amen.’ Luther burning papal bull of excommunication Luther condemned to death for heresy Protected by Elector of Saxony & hidden in castle at Wartburg Luther translated Bible to German By 1525, back at Wittenburg, teaching and preaching Married Katherine von Bora; six children Died in 1546 Early edition of Luther’s German Bible John Calvin: Reformed John Calvin: Reformed Tradition 1509­1564; French scholar Presented a systematic explication of Protestant theology Geneva: Established a Protestant community Institutes of Christian Religion: systematic explication of Calvinist theology ‘Predestination’: God has already determined who will be saved; who will receive the gift of faith. Protestant Beliefs Protestant Beliefs Bible: sole source Reject Pope’s authority Emphasize individual’s relationship w/ God Luther: Salvation by faith alone Calvin: Predestination Accept Baptism & Marriage; reject other sacraments Catholic Response Catholic Response Council of Trent: 1545­1563 Reformed Church: Eliminated abuses Emphasized education for clergy Rejected & condemned all Protestant theology Created modern Catholic Church Impact of Reformation of Politics Think about Luther and Calvin’s insistence that individuals have a direct relationship with God; that they do not need the intercession of a priest or the sacraments. What change does that bring to the medieval world view? Why might Reformation theology have political consequences? What might those consequences be? ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/25/2011 for the course HST 102 taught by Professor Chapman during the Spring '08 term at Grand Valley State.

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