Unformatted text preview: Religious Change in Religious Change in Europe:
Sixteenth Century Reformers:
Catholic and Protestant Background: Background: The Church in 1500 Poor teaching: Ignorance among rural clergy Magic beliefs among common folk Confused, unclear doctrine Poor Leadership: Some Popes & Bishops concerned w/ political power & wealth Failure to provide spiritual leadership Background
Background Poor Example: Immorality, especially violations of celibacy Pluralism, holding more than one office Absentee bishops & priests Simony, buying church offices Nepotism, appointing friends & relatives to church offices Spending church funds on luxuries Calls for Reform Calls for Reform Many Catholics, both clergy and lay people, demanded reform of the Church: Catherine of Siena, a nun, scolded the pope for his lack of leadership; Erasmus, a monk, deplored abuses & insisted that everyone should be able to read the Bible; Lay people like Thomas More called for substantial reforms in the Church. Martin Luther:
Challenge to Papal Authority Born: 1483
Father: Prosperous miner & foundry owner
Young Martin: sent to school to study law, but choose to become a monk;
1507: Ordained a priest
1512: Completed doctorate in theology & began teaching at Wittenburg University
1513: Traveled to Rome on a spiritual pilgrimage, but came back outraged at the lax & luxurious living he witnessed among the higher clergy. Martin Luther:
1483-1546 Monastery at Erfurt Luther as a Monk By 1515, Luther struggled with a By 1515, Luther struggled with a Dilemma: How can I, a sinful human being, be saved?
Despite prayer, fasting, monastic life, his anxieties increased over the years.
Found answer in Paul’s Letter to Romans: ‘the righteous are saved by faith’ not any action of their own.
Luther’s insight soon intersected with the local bishop’s need for money. 1517
1517 Local bishop, holder of three dioceses, needed money to pay the Pope for his newest church office & the dispensation for it;
Pope authorized sale of indulgences (see next slide for definition) to raise money.
Local ruler prohibited sale in Saxony but
Residents of Wittenburg rushed across border to buy indulgences in neighboring state. Indulgences
Indulgences Originally, remission from penance for sin
By 1300, included remission from time in purgatory (punishment still remaining for sins that were forgiven);
Supposed to be granted for true spiritual contrition and charitable deeds;
By 1517: marketed for living and for the dead: you could buy one for a deceased person! Indulgences
Indulgences Johan Tetzel (14651519): hired to sell indulgences for the bishop “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs!”
Luther was appalled: You can’t buy salvation for yourself or anyone else; you need to have faith in Jesus! Luther’s Challenge: 95 Theses
Luther’s Challenge: 95 Theses October 31, 1517: posted on church door
Invitation to other theologians to debate Printed & distributed throughout Germany by December
Argued no scriptural basis for indulgences
Pope had no authority to issue them
1520: Luther Excommunicated Printed Copy of
Luther’s 95 Theses Diet of Worms
Diet of Worms
1521 Meeting of Rulers & Bishops of Holy Roman Empire.
Luther summoned by Emperor Charles V.
Ordered to recant (take back his teaching).
Luther’s response: ‘I am bound by Scripture and my conscience… Here I stand, I cannot and will not recant anything…. God help me. Amen.’ Luther burning papal bull
of excommunication Luther condemned to death for heresy
Protected by Elector of Saxony & hidden in castle at Wartburg
Luther translated Bible to German
By 1525, back at Wittenburg, teaching and preaching
Married Katherine von Bora; six children
Died in 1546 Early edition of Luther’s
German Bible John Calvin: Reformed John Calvin: Reformed Tradition 15091564; French scholar
Presented a systematic explication of Protestant theology
Geneva: Established a Protestant community
Institutes of Christian Religion: systematic explication of Calvinist theology
‘Predestination’: God has already determined who will be saved; who will receive the gift of faith. Protestant Beliefs
Protestant Beliefs Bible: sole source Reject Pope’s authority
Emphasize individual’s relationship w/ God
Luther: Salvation by faith alone Calvin: Predestination Accept Baptism & Marriage; reject other sacraments Catholic Response
Catholic Response Council of Trent: 15451563
Reformed Church: Eliminated abuses Emphasized education for clergy Rejected & condemned all Protestant theology
Created modern Catholic Church Impact of Reformation of Politics Think about Luther and Calvin’s insistence that individuals have a direct relationship with God; that they do not need the intercession of a priest or the sacraments. What change does that bring to the medieval world view? Why might Reformation theology have political consequences? What might those consequences be? ...
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- Spring '08
- Martin Luther, Protestant Reformation