Chapter 15 Notes - CHAPTER 15 Radical Reactions 15.1...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 15 Radical Reactions 15.1 Introduction and General Features of Radical Reactions • Radicals are species that have an unpaired electron. • Because radicals do not have a full octet of electrons, they are electron-deficient and usually highly reactive. • Radicals are neutral; they have no formal charge. • Because radicals are electrically neutral, a solvent is not necessary for radical reactions (unlike in reactions involving ions where a solvent is required to dissolve the ionic species). • There are two general types of free-radical reactions in organic chemistry: substitution and addition . • In the generation of radicals, a half-headed arrow is used to show the movement of each electron ( fish-hook ). • All radical reactions are chain reactions; the reaction proceeds in a series of discrete steps. • Radical reactions proceed through 3 general steps: initiation , propagation , termination . • A reaction usually involves radicals if any of these reactants or conditions are present: AIBN (a radical initiator) , peroxides (ROOR) , UV light (hυ) , or high temperature (300-500°C) . • Compounds that prevent radical reactions from occurring are called radical inhibitors or radical scavengers ( e.g. O 2 , Vitamin E , Antioxidants ). Done by Dr. Felix N. Ngassa for CHM 242: Organic Chemistry for Life Sciences 2, GVSU, Spring/Summer 2011. 1 A. Geometry: • A carbon radical has a trigonal planar geometry with bond angles of 120° about the carbon with the unpaired electron. • Carbon radicals are classified as primary (1°), secondary (2°), or tertiary (3°) by the number of carbons ( R groups ) directly bonded to the carbon with the unpaired electron. B. Hybridization: • A carbon radical is sp 2 hybridized....
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This note was uploaded on 05/25/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 242 taught by Professor Ngassa during the Spring '11 term at Grand Valley State.

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Chapter 15 Notes - CHAPTER 15 Radical Reactions 15.1...

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