besthstnotes - MIDDLE AGES Carolingian Empire Charlemagne...

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MIDDLE AGES Carolingian Empire- Charlemagne ! King of the Franks , first emperor since Rome. Had 1) memory of Roman past; 2) Germanic culture; 3) Christian faith. Mini renaissance during his time (education, language…) BUT dissolved with his death, 3 grandsons divided (treaty of Verdun). Chivalry - code of conduct…knightly virtues, honor, courtly love…made in order to reduce fighting among Christians…gave ‘em something else to think about Crusades - (1095-1204) Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. Brought en end to western Europe’s centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation…but only 1 st one was successful
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Feudalism - A political and economic system of Europe from the 9th to about the 15th century, based on the holding of all land in fief or fee and the resulting relation of lord to vassal and characterized by homage, legal and military service of tenants, and forfeiture.
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Fief - land granted in return for a sworn oath to provide specified military service Vassal - a sworn supporter of a king or lord committed to rendering specified military service to that king or lord Guilds - association of men, such as merchants, artisans, professors, etc. who worked in a particular trade and banded together to promote economic and political interests Hanseatic League - economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the 14 th century
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Hanseatic League Holy Roman Empire - (962-1806) loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes
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Manors - large, self-sufficient landholding with lord’s residence, outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding land Normans - descended from Vikings, resided in Normandy- northern France (“Norman” from “Norsemen” or “Northmen”)
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