History of Civilization Terms Chapter 24

History of Civilization Terms Chapter 24 - History of...

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History of Civilization Terms Chapter 24 Bourgeoisie – the middle class; not factory workers nor peasants nor the aristocracy Victoria – the long-reigning English queen; Pius IX – pope who had become extraordinarily reactionary following his expulsion from Rome; issued the Syllabus of Errors; attacked critics who independently examined matters of faith and doctrine Ex cathedra – “ from the chair”; a general council of the church to proclaim the doctrine of papal infallibility on issues concerning religion and moral behavior; the pope cannot err Leo XIII: Rerum Novarum – “Concerning New Things”; condemned Marxism and upheld capitalism but severely criticized the evils affecting the working class Oxford movement – met to defend the church from the various secular and political forces that were besieging it Factory system – the workers worked, and the owners made profits; the owners wanted to make the most they could from their investment and to get the most work they could from their employees First International – included labor activists ranging from English trade unions to eastern European refugees to anarchists to German theorists; Marx organized it; advance workers’ movements by providing a theoretical basis and an aggressive public statement of their case Lassalle – founded the Social Democrats that made important gains in Germany; Second Industrial Revolution – brought new products and power sources to the Continent; Malthus – the expanded food supply supported the growth in European population; this disproved the views of Malthus’ “Essay on Population”; McAdam – created the all-weather road by placing small stones in compact layers directly on the road bed Zollverin – customs union; helped break down the physical and financial barriers imposed at the various state boundaries; in Prussia Charles Darwin, Origin of Species , 1859 – formulated a major scientific theory called
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