History of Civilization Terms Chapter 23

History of Civilization Terms Chapter 23 - History of...

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History of Civilization Terms Chapter 23 Nationalism – a populace embraced in a common land, language, folklore, history, enemies, and religion Hegel – he built on nationalism in his lectures and writings at the University of Berlin; history was a process of evolution in which the supremacy of primitive instincts would give way to the reign of clear reason and freedom Herder – provided historical support and linguistic bases for the Slavic nationalist movement; conceived of a world spirit made up of component parts of the various national spirits Grimm Brothers - provided historical support and linguistic bases for the Slavic nationalist movement; philological work aided the literary and linguistic revivals of many Slavic groups Mazzini – played an important role in the unification struggle of Italy; Conservatism – stressed the need to maintain order through a constant reference to history; they believed that the welfare and happiness of humanity resided in the slowly evolving institutions of the past Burke – provided the basis of nineteenth-century European conservatism Liberalism – affirmed the dignity of the individual and the “pursuit of happiness” as an inherent right Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations believed in fair competition among individuals responding to the laws of supply and demand with a minimum of governmental regulation or interference Bentham – devised the concept of utilitarianism, or philosophical radicalism, based on the notions of utility and happiness; he connected these ideas by noting that each individual knows what is best for himself and that all human institutions should be measured according to the amount of happiness they give John Stuart Mill – noted that, in industry, the interests of the owners and workers did not necessarily coincide; he proposed the theory that government should pass legislation to remedy injustice Socialism – believed that human beings are essentially good, and with the proper organization of society there would be a happy future with no wars, crimes, administration of injustice, or government Utopian socialists – men will seek the good of all Saint-Simon – defined a nation as “nothing but a great industrial society” and politics as “the science of production”; advocated that humanity should voluntarily
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This note was uploaded on 05/25/2011 for the course HIST 102 taught by Professor Mr.fisher during the Spring '11 term at Grand Valley State.

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History of Civilization Terms Chapter 23 - History of...

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