History of Civilization Terms Chapter 19

History of Civilization Terms Chapter 19 - History of...

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History of Civilization Terms Chapter 19 Copernicus: ON the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres – he disproved the geocentric theory and rediscovered the heliocentric theory Brahe – a Danish astronomer that disproved the Ptolemaic explanation; he even tried to find a compromise between the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems Kepler – assistant to Brahe; he supported the Copernican theory; he proved that Mars traveled in an ellipse not a circle; Galileo – made a telescope; he discovered more facts to prove the Copernican theory; the church disproved of it and Galileo was executed Deductive and inductive reasoning – deductive: self evident truths moved toward complex propositions; Descartes: Discourse on Method – rejected every accepted idea that could be doubted; he concluded that he could be certain of nothing except the facts that he was thinking and that he must exist Francis Bacon: Novum Organum – conceived of a system of thought that advocated the use of reason for interpreting human sensory experiences; Newton: Principia – in his book he defended the sovereign rights of Cambridge University against King James II; he also “discovered” gravity; Watt – invented the classic and more efficient steam engine with a double-action piston capable of driving a wheel Scientific discoveries Leeuwenhoek – discovered protozoa, bacteria, and human spermatozoa Boyle – was the first to distinguish between chemical compounds and mixtures Priestly – isolated ammonia, discovered oxygen, and generated carbon monoxide Lavoisier – proved that combustion is a chemical process involving the uniting of oxygen with the substances consumed Vesalius – wrote On the Frabric of the Human Body gave detailed drawings of the body Locke: Second Treatise on Civil Government goals was to destroy absolute monarchy and to refute the theory of divine right; attempted to support the new English political system by grounding it on the natural laws of psychology, economics, and politics Age of Reason – it reflected the particular conditions of each country in which it was found; intellectual age; based on Newtonian science; sought to create a science of man that would solve human problems, just as other sciences were beginning to reveal secrets of nature Spinoza: pantheism – God existed in all of nature, which therefore ruled itself by its own laws; Philosophes – were writers and intellectuals who analyzed the evils of society and sought reforms in accordance with the principles of right reason and existing institutions Montesquieu: The Spirit of Laws expressed his main political principles, including checks and balances as safeguards of liberty Voltaire – personified the skepticism of his century toward traditional religion and the injustices of the old regimes; he was converted to Newtonian science and freedom of
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This note was uploaded on 05/25/2011 for the course HIST 102 taught by Professor Mr.fisher during the Spring '11 term at Grand Valley State University.

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History of Civilization Terms Chapter 19 - History of...

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