History of Civilization Terms Chapter 18

History of Civilization Terms Chapter 18 - History of...

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History of Civilization Terms Chapter 18 Bourgeoisie – free people who lived in towns; a new class of people Capitalism – an economic system based on private ownership of property, individual risk taking, and market determination of the prices of goods Improvements in agriculture: Tull – carefully planted in neat rows using a drill he invented and kept the plants well cultivated as they grew to maturity Townshend – specialized in restoring soil fertility; he used methods such as applying clay-lime mixtures and planting turnips Bakewell – he selectively breed cattle to increase meat and milk Young – he was an advocate for the new agriculture; he went on tours and documented his observations Enclosures – landlords tried to free their lands from old manorial restrictions Domestic system – brokers supplied materials to the workers in their homes and later collected the products, to be sent through another stage of finishing or sold directly on the marker. Joint stock companies – pooled the resources of many investors; Absolutism: Bossuet: “divine right” – claimed that rulers were agents of God’s will Hobbes: Leviathan – people created governments as a protection against themselves because human life was naturally “poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” France: Bourbon House – Louis XIII – seized power at age 15 and followed Cardinal Richelieu’s advice Richelieu – he saw the Habsburgs and the papacy as the main threats to French interests; he increased the power of the king, after he died Cardinal Mazarin carried on his policies Mazarin – he ran the government; a civil war, the Fronde broke out, The Fronde – a civil war waged by the French nobles against the king; Louis XIV: Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 1685 – this new law subjected Protestants to torture or imprisonment; 300,000 protestants escaped Versailles – Louis’ palace, a short distance from Paris Mercantilism: Colbert – he installed mercantilism at the expense of Dutch overseas commerce; he created a comprehensive system of tariffs and trade prohibitions; Bullionism” – one of mercantilism’s basic principles; it sought to increase
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This note was uploaded on 05/25/2011 for the course HIST 102 taught by Professor Mr.fisher during the Spring '11 term at Grand Valley State.

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History of Civilization Terms Chapter 18 - History of...

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