Traumatic_Brain_Injury_(2020).pdf - Traumatic Brain Injury A Clinician\u2019s Guide to Diagnosis Management and Rehabilitation Jack W Tsao\u2002 Editor Second

Traumatic_Brain_Injury_(2020).pdf - Traumatic Brain Injury...

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Unformatted text preview: Traumatic Brain Injury A Clinician’s Guide to Diagnosis, Management, and Rehabilitation Jack W. Tsao  Editor Second Edition 123 Traumatic Brain Injury Jack W. Tsao Editor Traumatic Brain Injury A Clinician’s Guide to Diagnosis, Management, and Rehabilitation Second Edition Editor Jack W. Tsao The University of Tennessee Health Science Center Memphis, TN USA ISBN 978-3-030-22435-6    ISBN 978-3-030-22436-3 (eBook) © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors, and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland For Veronica, Emmanuel, Joan, Grace, Peter, Anna, and Mike Preface The first edition of Traumatic Brain Injury: A Clinician’s Guide to Diagnosis, Management, and Rehabilitation, published in 2012, was written to enable medical professionals to quickly learn about the latest issues and treatments in this evolving clinical field. Since that time, there has been increased public awareness of the clinical consequences of even the mildest of head injuries, and the numerous advances in the areas of diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, and pathophysiology have resulted from a concerted effort of countries around the world to increase research funding. This second edition continues to focus on mild traumatic brain injury—or concussion—and contains updates to all the original chapters as well as adds new chapters addressing clinical sequelae, including pediatric concussion, visual changes, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and blast-related TBI, the latter two being areas of intense research efforts currently. The chapter authors were asked to focus on key issues of which practicing clinicians should be aware in order to provide the best care to their patients. An updated appendix of ICD codes is included. I would like to thank my family for their support in the writing and editing process; my colleagues who generously contributed their time to updating or writing new chapters; Richard Lansing, the publishing editor who encouraged me to edit this second edition; and Elizabeth Corra, the development editor who helped guide this edition to its completion. Finally, as many of the authors of this edition continue to serve as US military officers or government employees, I am including the disclaimer here: The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Departments of the Navy or Army, the Department of Defense, or the Department of Veterans Affairs. Memphis, TN, USA Jack W. Tsao vii Contents Overview of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)�������������������������������������     1 David F. Moore, Michael Jaffee, Geoffrey Ling, and Raul Radovitzky Neuroradiological Imaging of Traumatic Brain Injury ������������������    15 Tuong Huu Le, Alisa Gean, and Shirley I. Stiver Neuropsychological Assessment of mTBI in Adults��������������������������    57 Andrew J. Gardner, James Tonks, Seb Potter, Philip J. Yates, Adam Reuben, Helen Ryland, and Huw Williams Management of Moderate and Severe TBI����������������������������������������    75 Geoffrey Ling, Scott A. Marshall Jr, Randy S. Bell, and Rocco A. Armonda Sports Concussion��������������������������������������������������������������������������������    93 Briana N. Perry, Kassondra Collins, Ellen O’Conor, Sharon R. Weeks, and Jack W. Tsao Blast-Related Concussion��������������������������������������������������������������������   113 Carson T. Lawall Sleep/Wake Disturbances in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Patients������������������������������������������������������������������   129 Joseph Krainin, Aimee Alphonso Morrison, and Michael B. Russo Vestibular Consequences of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)��������������������������������������������������������������������   151 Mikhaylo Szczupak, Michael E. Hoffer, Kim Gottshall, and Erik S. Viirre Post-traumatic Headache��������������������������������������������������������������������   159 Ajal M. Dave, Jay C. Erickson, and Brett J. Theeler Epileptic and Nonepileptic Seizures after Traumatic Brain Injury��������������������������������������������������������������   181 Katherine Hamilton and Karen Parko ix x Posttraumatic Hypopituitarism: Neuroendocrine Dysfunction and Treatment��������������������������������������������������������   197 Dennis J. Zgaljardic, Lisa Kreber, Jack Foreman, and Randall Urban Visual Disturbances and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) ����   215 Lauren C. Ditta, Nicole K. Weber, Katherine E. Robinson-Freeman, Elle McKenzie, Samantha A. Thomas, Han Jun Kim, Ansley Grimes Stanfill, and Jack W. Tsao Mild TBI and Co-Occurring PTSD Symptoms in Service Member Populations��������������������������������������������������������������������   225 Jonathan Wolf, Jeannine B. Mielke, and Johanna M. Wolf Behavioral and Psychiatric Comorbidities of TBI����������������������������   239 Robert L. Collins, Hannah L. Combs, Shannon R. Miles, Nicholas J. Pastorek, Andra Teten Tharp, and Thomas A. Kent Chronic Effects of TBI in a Military Population������������������������������   263 Louis M. French, Stephanie A. Marble, and Walter M. Greenhalgh Rehabilitation Following TBI�������������������������������������������������������������   293 Mel B. Glenn and Shirley L. Shih Interventions to Improve Cognitive Functioning After Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)������������������������������������������   329 Anthony Chen, Tatjana Novakovic-Agopian, and Fred Loya Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) Affects the Family, Not Just the Injured Individual��������������������������������������������������   377 Ronel Terblanche Pediatric Concussion Diagnosis, Management, and Rehabilitation������������������������������������������������������������������������   383 Tina L. Samuel and Karen M. Barlow Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy��������������������������������������������������   399 Diego Iacono and Daniel P. Perl Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Current Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges��������������������������������������������������������   421 Inbal Eshel and Donald W. Marion Appendix ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������   439 Theresa Brown Lattimore and Yll Agimi Index������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������   449 Contents Contributors Yll Agimi, PhD, MPH, MS  Medical Surveillance, Information Innovators Inc, Surveillance, Defense, and Veterans Brain Injury Center, Silver Spring, MD, USA Rocco A. Armonda, MD, Col (ret), USAMC  Department of Neurosurgery, MedStar Washington Hospital Center/Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA Karen M. Barlow, MB, ChB, MSc, MRCPCH(UK)  Child Health Research Centre, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Randy S. Bell, MD  Department of Surgery, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA Anthony Chen, MD VA Northern California, Department of Neurology, Martinez, CA, USA Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Kassondra Collins, MD Department of Health Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Robert L. Collins, PhD, ABPP  Neurology Care Line, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Hannah L. Combs, MS Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Houston, TX, USA Ajal M. Dave, MD  Department of Neurology, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA Lauren C. Ditta, MD  Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Le Bonheur Children’s Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA Jay C. Erickson, MD, PhD  Department of Neurology, St. Joseph’s Hospital, Tacoma, WA, USA Inbal Eshel, MA, CCC-SLP  The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, Department of Clinical Affairs, Silver Spring, MD, USA xi xii Jack Foreman, BS The Transitional Learning Center at Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA Louis M. French, PsyD  National Intrepid Center of Excellence (NICoE), Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA Andrew J. Gardner, PhD  Priority Research Centre for Stroke and Brain Injury, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Alisa Gean, MD  Department of Neuroradiology, University of California, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center, San Francisco, CA, USA Mel B. Glenn, MD  Brain Injury Division, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA NeuroRestorative (The MENTOR Network),—Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Boston, MA, USA Community Rehab Care, Watertown, MA, USA Kim Gottshall, PhD, PT  Warfighter Performance Department, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA, USA Walter M. Greenhalgh, MD, CAPT, MC, USN(FS) National Intrepid Center of Excellence (NICoE), Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA Katherine Hamilton, MD Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Michael E. Hoffer, MD  Department of Otolaryngology and Neurological Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami Hospital, Miami, FL, USA Diego Iacono, MD, PhD  Brain Tissue Repository & Neuropathology Core, Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM), Uniformed Services University (USU), Bethesda, MD, USA Department of Neurology, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine – “America’s Medical School”, Uniformed Services University (USU), Bethesda, MD, USA Department of Pathology, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine – “America’s Medical School”, Uniformed Services University (USU), Bethesda, MD, USA Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine – “America’s Medical School”, Uniformed Services University (USU), Bethesda, MD, USA The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine (HJF), Bethesda, MD, USA Complex Neurodegenerative Disorders, Neurodegenerrative Clinics, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA Michael Jaffee, MD Department of Neurology, University of Florida College of Medicine, University of Florida Health, Gainesville, FL, USA Contributors Contributors xiii Thomas A. Kent, MD  Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A & M Health Science Center, Department of Neurology, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USA Han Jun Kim, MD Department of Neurology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA Joseph Krainin, MD  American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Jacksonville Beach, FL, USA Lisa Kreber, PhD  Center for Neuro Skills, Bakersfield, CA, USA Theresa Brown Lattimore, BSN, MSN  United States Army Office of the Surgeon General, Falls Church, VA, USA Carson T. Lawall, MD Oakland Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Oakland, CA, USA Tuong Huu Le, MD, PhD  Prime Diagnostic Imaging, Plano, TX, USA Geoffrey Ling, MD, PhD  Department of Neurology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Fred Loya, PhD VA Northern California, Department of Neurology, Martinez, CA, USA Stephanie A. Marble, BS, CBIS Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence (NICoE), Bethesda, MD, USA Donald W. Marion, MD The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, Department of Clinical Affairs, Silver Spring, MD, USA Scott A. Marshall Jr, MD  Critical Care Medicine and Vascular Neurology, Department of Neurology, Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, UT, USA Elle McKenzie  Department of Neurology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA Jeannine B. Mielke, PhD  Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence, Bethesda, MD, USA Shannon R. Miles, PhD James A. Haley Veterans Hospital, HSR & D Center of Innovation on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (CINDRR), Tampla, FL, USA David F. Moore, MD, PhD, FAAN  University of North Dakota, Fargo, ND, USA Aimee Alphonso Morrison, MD  Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Philadelphia, PA, USA Tatjana Novakovic-Agopian, PhD  San Francisco VA HCS, Mental Health Service, San Francisco, CA, USA University of California, San Francisco, Department of Psychiatry, San Francisco, CA, USA xiv Ellen O’Conor, MPH  Department of Neurology, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN, USA Karen Parko, MD VA Epilepsy Centers of Excellence, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Nicholas J. Pastorek, PhD Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Department of Rehabilitation and Extended Care Line, Houtson, TX, USA Daniel P. Perl, MD Brain Tissue Repository & Neuropathology Core, Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM), Uniformed Services University (USU), Bethesda, MD, USA Department of Pathology, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine – “America’s Medical School”, Uniformed Services University (USU), Bethesda, MD, USA Briana N. Perry, MD  Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA Seb Potter, DClinPsy  Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, King’s College London, London, UK Raul Radovitzky, PhD Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA Adam Reuben, MB ChB, MSc(oxon), MRCS Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, Emergency Department, Exeter, UK Katherine E. Robinson-Freeman, BS  Department of Neurology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA Michael B. Russo, MD, FAAN, FAsMA, FAASM, FACP Honolulu Neuroscience Clinic, Hilo, HI, USA Helen Ryland, CPsychol  University of Exeter, Exeter, UK Tina L. Samuel, MBBS Alberta Children’s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics (Neurology), Calgary, AB, Canada Shirley L. Shih, MD  Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA Ansley Grimes Stanfill, PhD, RN College of Nursing, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA Shirley I. Stiver, MD, PhD, FAANS,  San Francisco, CA, USA Mikhaylo Szczupak, MD Department of Otolaryngology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Ronel Terblanche, MSc, BA Defence Medical Rehabilitation Center, Center for Mental and Cognitive Health, Mild TBI Program, Epsom, UK Andra Teten Tharp, PhD Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Houston, TX, USA Brett J. Theeler, MD Department of Neurology, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA Contributors Contributors xv Samantha A. Thomas  Department of Neurology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA James Tonks, PhD, DClinPsych University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK Haven Clinical Psychology Practice, Cornwall, UK University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK Jack W. Tsao, MD, DPhil Department of Neurology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA Children’s Foundation Research Institute, Le Bonheur Children’s Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA Randall Urban, MD  Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA Erik S. Viirre, MD, PhD Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego Health System, San Diego, CA, USA Nicole K. Weber, BA  Department of Neurology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA Sharon R. Weeks, MD Department of Surgery, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA Huw Williams, PhD, DClinPsy  University of Exeter, Exeter, UK Johanna M. Wolf, PsyD Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Department of Behavioral Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Jonathan Wolf, MD Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury, Bethesda, MD, USA Philip J. Yates, DClinPsy Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Mardon Neuro-Rehabilitation Center, Exeter, UK Dennis J. Zgaljardic, PhD Department of Neuropsychology, The Transitional Learning Center at Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA Overview of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) David F. Moore, Michael Jaffee, Geoffrey Ling, and Raul Radovitzky Historical Perspective Accounts of neurological trauma are present in the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer from Greek antiquity where concepts consistent with interpretation loss of consciousness, penetrating brain injury, spinal cord injury, brachial plexus, and nerve injury are present. These injury concepts of the nervous system are well summarized with direct translation from ancient Greek in two review articles by Walshe [1] and Sablas [2]. One important aspect of these oral tradition epics to the ancient Greeks may have been to preserve warrior knowledge about injury vulnerability, allowing more formalized military training. It is clear that even in antiquity, traumatic brain injury (TBI) was described both in the military and civilian context. D. F. Moore (*) University of North Dakota, Fargo, ND, USA M. Jaffee Department of Neurology, University of Florida College of Medicine, University of Florida Health, Gainesville, FL, USA G. Ling Department of Neurology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA R. Radovitzky Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA The historical account of concussion is well summarized and described by the paper by McCrory and Berkovic [3]. Initial use of the term “concussion,” in the modern sense of an alteration or temporary loss of adaptive brain function or an abnormal brain physiological state, as opposed to distinct brain injury, was used by the medieval Persian physician Rhazes (Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī, 826–925 AD). Subsequent to this and with Chauliac (1300– 1368 AD), the concept of a brain concussion or “commotio cerebri” with a relatively benign outcome from “contusio cerebri” or brain injury, such as a skull fracture with a poor outcome, became accepted in Western medicine with some variation. In more recent discussion the consideration of a structural versus a functional cause of concussion has been considered in light of modern medical advances and technologies but still contains significant indeterminacies depending on the length scale of the approach. For ex...
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