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Annual Edition 1, 2, 8 - 1 The Growth of Evolutionary...

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1. “The Growth of Evolutionary Science” by Douglas J. Futuyama 1. What is meant by the "great chain of being" or the "scale of nature?" Why would there be no gaps? What belief co-existed with this notion? 2. Describe the concept of "final cause" and how it differs from "efficient cause." Why does "final cause" imply a divine intelligence? Be aware of the way in which the Bible was interpreted literally. 3. How did the "catastrophists" attempt to explain the facts of geology? How did Buffon and Hutton respond? How did Buffon speculate about change being applied to living things as well? 4. Be familiar with the views of Lamarck. 5. What effect does competition have upon the diversification of species and why? 6. Why do "less than perfect" organisms continue to exist? 7. Why were some biologists not convinced of the theory of natural selection even when they were convinced of the idea of evolution? Which scientists remained on Darwin's side and why?
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