Evolution in the Natural World

Evolution in the Natural World - Every member of a species...

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Every member of a species is slightly different. Individuals = the driving force behind natural selection. Fitness is relative reproductive success. It measured by an individual’s genetic contribution to the next generation compared to other individuals and distinct from fecundity (number of offspring produced). Individuals that produce greater members of offspring than their conspecifics have higher fitness. Natural selection is mechanism of evolutionary change. It refers to frequencies of certain traits in populations due to relative fitness of individuals. Adaptation is functional response of organisms to their environment and produced by natural selection. The frogfish (Anntenarius pictus) can alter its appearance to blend in to its environment. This adaptation has both offensive and defensive purposes. The specialized feeding adaptation is Koala Bear and the generalized adaptation is the cockroach. They ensure their success as species. Co-evolution is evolution of 2 interdependent species, each adapting to the other. Organisms often mimic one another for their own benefit. The one being copied is called the model, the copycat is the mimic, ex: the model is the Monarch butterfly and the mimic is the Viceroy butterfly. Batesian mimicry is fakers – they resemble their models because of some quality the model possesses, but they themselves lack the quality the model has. Aggressive mimicry, ex: Labroides dimidiatus (the common cleaner wrasse), removes parasites from another satisfied customer and Plagiotremus Thinorhynchos, the bluestriped fang blenny, mimics the cleaner wrasse to parasitize other fish. Competition is the main driving force behind the evolution of species.
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Evolution in the Natural World - Every member of a species...

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