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Molecular Genetics - DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid Human DNA is...

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DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Human DNA is large organic molecule that stores the genetic code. A chemical compound composed of sugars, phosphates and bases arranged in a double helix shaped molecular structure. Human DNA contains 3 billion base pairs. Segments of DNA in chromosomes correspond to specific genes. DNA replication Codon = a sequence of three nucleotide bases in RNA that codes for a specific amino acid Amino acid = small molecules that are the components of proteins.
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The Genetic Code Proteins = 3 dimensional molecules that serve a wide variety of functions through their ability to bind with other molecules. Proteins serve many functions in the body: forming the basis for tissues (for example, collagen) and other body structures. The 20 amino acids are combined in various ways to form proteins (number and sequence of amino acids varies). Transcription is the formation of messenger RNA from free-floating nucleotides produced by the cell (thymine is replace by uracil). Introus (non coding sections) are removed; only exons (coding sections) undergo transcription. Transcription is the first step in protein synthesis. Once done, the mRNA passes through the cell membrane to the ribosome. Protein synthesis
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DNA, chromosomes and genes Chromosomes: the human karyotype Characteristics of human chromosomes: Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes Males and females distinguished by their sex chromosomes (pair 23). Males have x/y, females have x/x Chromosomes are composed of 2 long strands of DNA which code for the 20-25,000 genes making up the human genome They are homologous (the same gene occupies the same place on both halves of the chromosome) Some of the DNA from a single human chromosome
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