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# chap01 - Notational Conventions DC Quantity Upper...

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Notational Conventions DC Quantity — Upper case-letter, upper-case subscript V BE , I D Small-Signal Quantity — Lower case-letter, lower-case subscript v be , i d Total Quantity — Lower case-letter, upper-case subscript v BE = V BE + v be , i D = I D + i d Phasor Quantity — Upper case-letter, lower-case subscript V be , I d Independent Sources Figure 1(a) shows the diagram of an independent voltage source. The voltage v is independent of the current i that flows through the source. Fig. 1(b) shows the diagram of an independent current source. The current i is independent of the voltage v across the source. Figure 1: (a) Independent voltage source. (b) Independent current source. Dependent Sources VCVS — Voltage Controlled Voltage Source Figure 2(a) shows the diagram of a voltage controlled voltage source. The output voltage is given by a voltage gain A v multiplied by an input voltage v 1 . Such a source in SPICE is called an E source. Figure 2: (a) Voltage controlled voltage source. (b) Voltage controlled current source. (c) Current controlled voltage source. (d) Current controlled current source. VCCS — Voltage Controlled Current Source Figure 2(b) shows the diagram of a voltage controlled current source. The output current is given by a transconductance G m multiplied by an input voltage v 1 . Such a source in SPICE is called a G source. CCVS — Current Controlled Voltage Source Figure 2(c) shows the diagram of a current controlled voltage source. The output voltage is given by a transresistance R m multiplied by an input current i 1 . Such a source in SPICE is called an F source. CCCS — Current Controlled Current Source Figure 2(d) shows the diagram of a current controlled current source. The output current is given by a current gain A i multiplied by an input current i 1 . Such a source in SPICE is called an H source. 1

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Passive Elements Resistor Figure 3(a) shows the diagram of a resistor. The voltage across it is given by v = iR This relation is known as Ohm’s law. Figure 3: (a) Resistor. (b) Inductor. (c) Capacitor. Inductor Fig. 3(b) shows an inductor. The voltage across it is given by v = L di dt In the analysis of circuits having sinusoidal excitations, phasor analysis is usually used. In this case, the voltage across the inductor is given by V = LsI where V and I are phasors, s = , and ω is the radian frequency of the excitation. In the phasor domain, a multiplication by s is equivalent to a time derivative in the time domain. This is because the time domain excitation is assumed to be of the form exp( st ) .
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