eeng410_Lecture1 - EENG410/INFE410 Microprocessors I Fall...

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EENG410/INFE410 – Microprocessors I Fall 08/09 – Lecture Notes # 1 Outline of the Lecture ± Microcomputers and Microprocessors ± Evolution of Intel 80x86 Family Microprocessors ± Binary and Hexadecimal Number Systems M ICROCOMPUTERS AND M ICROPROCESSORS There are three major parts of a Computer System. 1. Central Processing Unit (CPU) : Also simply called as the microprocessor acts as the brain coordinating all activities within a computer. 2. The Memory : The program instructions and data are primarily stored. 3. The Input/Output (I/O) Devices : Allow the computer to input information for processing and then output the results. I/O Devices are also known as computer peripherals. The integrated Circuit (IC) chip containing the CPU is called the microprocessor and the entire computer including the microprocessor, memory and I/O is called a microcomputer . The CPU is connected to memory and I/O devices through a strip of wires called a bus . The bus inside a computer carries information from place to place. In every computer there are three types of busses: 1. Address Bus: The address bus is used to identify the memory location or I/O device the processor intends to communicate with. The width of the Address Bus rages from 20 bits (8086) to 36 bits for (Pentium II). 2. Data Bus: Data bus is used by the CPU to get data from / to send data to the memory or the I/O devices. The width of a microprocessor is used to classify the microprocessor. The size of data bus of Intel microprocessors vary between 8-bit (8085) to 64-bit (Pentium). 3. Control Bus. How can we tell if the address on the bus is memory address or an I/O device address? This where the control bus comes in. Each time the processor outputs an address it also activates one of the four control bus signals: Memory Read, Memory Write, I/O Read and I/O Write. ¾ The address and control bus contains output lines only, therefore it is unidirectional, but the data bus is bidirectional. ¾ There two types of memory used in microcomputers: RAM ( Random Access Memory/ Read-Write memory) is used by the computer for the temporary storage of the programs that is running. Data is lost when the computer is turned off. So known as volatile memory. ROM
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This note was uploaded on 05/26/2011 for the course EEE 410 taught by Professor Hasandemirel during the Spring '10 term at Eastern Mediterranean University.

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eeng410_Lecture1 - EENG410/INFE410 Microprocessors I Fall...

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