week8 soc 169

week8 soc 169 - Week 8: Work & Families Week...

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Unformatted text preview: Week 8: Work & Families Week Sociology 169 Changing Family Forms Professor Silverstein Power & Families Power = acknowledged right of someone to Power supervise and control another’s behavior supervise Those in power usually have authority Those earning less generally have less power Power can exist without authority – Acquiescence of women (giving in) – Tacit acknowledgement of male power without Tacit coercion coercion Family Mode of Production Family produced what they needed (food, Family clothing, shelter) clothing, Production for use value Still men had power of ownership Labor Market Mode of Production Production Money is the generalized means of Money exchange exchange Household labor & care work (childrearing Household and eldercare) exchanged for labor market salaries of husband salaries – – – Unpaid Relationship-specific Not likely to build “human capital” in terms of Not seniority, status, rank, salary that would generalize to another context generalize World War II: Women Working World Rosie the Riveter Rosie Over 6 million women from all backgrounds, and from all Over over the country, worked at industrial jobs that challenged traditional notions of women's capabilities and ensured American productivity that helped to win the war. The sight of women outfitted in overalls and wielding The industrial tools became an icon that was popularized in the 1942 song, "Rosie the Riveter," providing a nickname for all women who worked in wartime industries. Across the nation women worked in defense industries and Across support services including shipyards, steel mills, foundries, lumber mills, warehouses, offices, hospitals and daycare centers. centers. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9GarCzR_6Ng&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=04VNBM1PqR8&NR=1 Women Continue to Enter the Labor Force: Women Increase in service sector jobs (secretaries, nurses, Increase clerks, teachers) sustained after WWII clerks, Demand for women workers: salaries went up, Demand making work more attractive making After 1960, fertility rate went down: fewer After children, less need to stay home children, Stagnation in men’s wages >1970 increased need Stagnation for dual-earner couples for Increase in divorce and single-parenting put Increase pressure on women to work pressure Professional women became more common » 44% of law school grads » 41% of medical school grads Equal opportunity laws Labor force participation rates for U.S. women by age U.S. Working Life of Women Working Pattern of high participation in early 20’s—leave Pattern labor force to have children—then return to labor force in 40s & 50s Now, married women enter labor force and more Now, likely to stay there likely Married Women and mothers in the Labor Force the One of most important changes in One American family life in past century American More than 50% back in the labor force More within a year of giving birth. within 2004 – 76% of all married women with 2004 school-aged children were in labor force school-aged 59% of those with preschool-aged children 59% were in the labor force were Mothers in the Labor Force Mothers Pay for Women Pay Women’s pay has increased faster than men’s Women’s since 1980 since Wives earnings boost their power in economic Wives decision making decision Pay for Women Pay Earnings did not raise as much for women without Earnings college education college – Women without college education tend to marry men of the Women same level same – Since men earned less due to economic circumstances, Since women looked like they were earning more women Women still earn substantially less than men Women – Parity: Equal work for equal wages – 80 cents for each dollar a man earns (2004) Changes in Marital Power Women in workforce affected balance of Women power between husbands and wives power – Shift from “companionship” to “independent” Shift marriage marriage – Greater family power for women who work for Greater wages than those who work at home wages – Makes divorce a viable option – Change less pronounced for poor or minority Change women who always needed to work women Marital Power Marital Gender gap in housework has narrowed Gender though women still do more than men though Total amount of housework done by dual Total earner married couples has declined earner – Use housecleaning service – Become accustomed to messier homes Stalled Revolution – No progress on narrowing the gender gap in No paid and unpaid labor paid Mean weekly time spent doing housework for mothers and fathers housework Rethinking Care Work Care work: Face-to-face activity of one person meeting another one’s needs person – – – – Children Frail elderly Ill or disabled Husbands and wives? Care Work as Separate from Other Productive Activities Productive The work/family boundary – – – – – Not considered economically productive Care work ignored as a public good Unpaid and undervalued Demeaned as “women’s work” Does not accrue retirement benefits Care Work as a Public Issue Care Liberal position: Values equity of labor Liberal between men and women. Advocates supporting caregivers of vulnerable and dependent family members using direct payments and regulating business policies. payments Conservative: Values strengthening families Conservative: and traditional institutions. Advocates supporting caregivers of vulnerable and dependent family members with tax incentives and use of voluntary religious organizations. and Home Alone Home As her night shift neared, single mom, Kim As Brathwaite faced a hard choice. Her baby sitter had not shown up, and to miss work might end her new position as assistant manager at a McDonald's in downtown Brooklyn. in It turned out to be a disastrous decision. Someone, It it seems, deliberately set fire to her apartment. Her children, age 9 and 1, died. And within hours, Kim Brathwaite was under arrest, charged with recklessly endangering her children. recklessly Home Alone Home Nationwide, parents themselves report leaving Nationwide, more than 3 million children under 13 — some as young as 5 — to care for themselves for at least a few hours a week on a regular basis. few Who do we blame? – The mothers? – An inflexible workplace? – Government policies that are stingy and unprotective of Government workers? workers? Family and Work Roles Family Role overload: too many roles to juggle (usually not Role stressful) stressful) Role conflict: roles have conflicting demands Role (usually stressful) (usually Spillover: stressful conditions in one part of life Spillover: spills over into another spills Anger, frustration, stress at work may boil over Anger, at home Stress may lead to health problems, Stress friction at home friction http://www.npr.org/templates/story /story.php?storyId=124616719 Unemployment & Domestic Violence: Spillover Violence: Unem ploym ent Rates 1 9 7 6 ­ 1997 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1976 1980 1985 Year 1990 1995 Coping with Childcare and Work Coping Juggling work schedules so that one parent can Juggling provide care while the other is working provide Taking part-time work Use of daycare Use Relying on relative such as grandmother Toward a Responsive Workplace Parental leave: Time off from work to care Parental for child for Part-time work with fringe benefits Job sharing Flextime: Policy allows employees to be Flextime: flexible with hours within limits, use of telecomuting telecomuting What Does the Government Provide In the United States the The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) The guarantees 12 weeks of unpaid leave to new unpaid mothers and the same amount of time to new fathers, for a total of 24 weeks per two-parent family. During this time the parents' jobs are protected, so that they can return to their job after taking leave. Both fathers and mothers are entitled to the same Both amount of leave, and that leave is nonamount transferable. This is supposed to insure more transferable. gender equality. gender Due to exemptions for small businesses, 40% of Due American workers have no guaranteed family leave at all Sweden Sweden What Does the Government Provide in Sweden Sweden 18 months of parental leave, taken over first seven 18 years of the child’s life, 80% pay, can be split by mothers and fathers (1974). mothers However, because it was transferable, men tended However, to let their wives take all of it. In 2003 men only accounted for two percent of the beneficiaries. To encourage fathers to make more use of paid To parental leave and to put pressure on employers through legal enforcement, Sweden introduced a non transferable daddy-month in 1995 that fathers must take or it will be lost. By 2005 father's share of leave days taken increased to 20%. More than half take some. half http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fz5FJkqWhbQ ...
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