Lec2 - Lecture 2 Birth of Molecular Biology First Tools for...

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Lecture 2 Birth of Molecular Biology First Tools for Recombinant DNA Technology: Plasmids and Restriction Enzymes (Chapter 5.2, Lodish 6th Ed.) (Chapter 9.2, Lodish 5th. Ed.)
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As proposed by Watson and Crick, DNA is an ideal genetic material because it can store information, is able to replicate, and is able to undergo changes (mutate -> evolve). 1957- Francis Crick proposes the “Central Dogma” of Molecular Biology: Information in DNA (nucleotide sequence) is “transferred/copied” into RNA which is then “translated” into proteins. He also speculated that three bases in the DNA always specify one amino acid in a protein. The genetic code was later solved by the in vitro translation experiments of Nirenberg and Khorana (between 1961 and 1966) who received the Nobel prize in 1968. DNA Replication RNA Protein Transcription Translation 1956 - Arthur Kornberg discovers DNA polymerase I an enzyme that replicates DNA, the “molecule of life” ! In 1959, he received the Nobel prize for Physiology and Medecine for this discovery.
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The “central dogma” proposed by Francis Crick in 1957 and the discovery in 1960 of messenger RNA (mRNA) by Sydney Brenner, Francis Crick, Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod marked the start of a new discipline: “Molecular Biology” Understanding in molecular terms how genomic DNA and its encoded information is replicated, decoded and its expression regulated. DNA sequence/structure and function of genes and their encoded protein products. The development of recombinant DNA technology initiated the era of Molecular Biology. This technology has matured into a powerful analytical tool which finds applications in a diverse set of scientific disciplines ranging from ecology and evolution to medicine, mathematics, and information science. It is this broad applicability that makes this technology so important to your undergraduate education. Molecular Biology and Recombinant DNA techniques originated with the collaboration between biochemists, physicists,and geneticists to understand the Central Dogma . Hereafter we review the first tools and some basic techniques in Molecular Biology
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Origin of important tools for recombinant DNA cloning: - Plasmids - DNA Restriction and Modification enzymes
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Plasmids Plasmids are relatively small circula r double-stranded DNA molecules (1 kbp - 400 kbp). They usually occur in bacteria and are separate from chromosomal (genomic) DNA. Sometimes found in eukaryotes (e.g., yeast 2 μ m ring DNA). They contain at least one origin of replication (Ori) and can replicate independently of chromosomal DNA. One copy, for large plasmids, to hundreds of copies of the same plasmid in a single cell.
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Lec2 - Lecture 2 Birth of Molecular Biology First Tools for...

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