Lec3 - Lecture 3 DNA Structure(Chapter 4.1 Lodish 5th/6th...

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Lecture 3 DNA Structure (Chapter 4.1 Lodish 5th/6th ed.)
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Information flow: The central dogma
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Genetics strongly influences health A portion of one's risk for developing disease is set at fertilization (e.g. 15-20% of colon cancer is hereditary; Mutations in P53 are involved in ~50% of human cancers). Epigenetic changes (e.g. DNA methylation, chromatin compaction) important in ~25% of cancers. Predisposition for disease does not always translate into actual illness. Environmental and behavioral factors can influence disease development, for better or worse. We are on the threshold of molecular medicine: Using knowledge of DNA sequence to avoid, diagnose and treat disease (e.g. for cancer of the breast, prostate, skin, ovaries and pancreas).
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DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides DNA and RNA each contain 4 nucleotide monophosphates
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Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is a polymer of 4 deoxyribonucleotides deoxyribose One of 4 nitrogenous bases
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Primary Structure Sugar-Phosphate Repeating Unit “Backbone”
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Antiparallel Bases H bonds “Backbone” Phosphate Sugar 3’end 5’end 5’end Secondary structure: DNA is usually double stranded 3’end Strands are “complementary” in sequence
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Base Pairing Purines:Pyrimidines (Big) (Small)
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Pitch=10.5 bp B-DNA Stacked bases viewed from side (10.5 bp/helical turn)
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DNA is usually a right handed helix It winds in the direction of the fingers of the right hand
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