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CBNS 101 lecture13 - Cell-Cell Signaling Cell-Cell...

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Cell-Cell Signaling
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Cell-Cell Signaling is Required for Every Aspect of Cell Socialization and Coordination of Cell Function Uni-cellular Organisms Multi-cellular Organisms Mating in yeast and other haploid cells Cell aggregation in response to starvation Differentiation Immune response Muscle contraction Which cells live, which cells divide, which cells die And many, many more
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A signal must be sent. Typically, signal is a molecule secreted by cells. The signal must be received by target cell. example: binding a specific cell surface receptor. The signal must be transduced into a biological response. Ligand binding can induce an intracellular signaling cascade,ending with an effect on a target protein. - changes in metabolism - changes in cytoskeleton - changes in gene expression Cell signaling-the short course ..
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SIGNALS: Cell signaling molecules encompass many factors Water Soluble Dissolved gases: Nitric oxide, carbon monoxide Small molecules: Amino acids, fatty acids, nucleotides, histamine Protein growth factors: EGF, PDGF, TGFb, NGF, etc. Neurotransmitters: acetylcholine, GABA Water Insoluble Hormones: Adrenaline, Estradiol, Insulin, Testosterone Cell Surface/Matrix Bound CAMs and extracellular matrix components.
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Cell Surface Receptors: Ligands usually water soluble. Intracellular Receptors: Ligands water insoluble (hormones). Signaling molecule Receptor Signaling molecule Receptor RECEPTORS: Two broad classes depending on whether signal molecule can cross the plasma membrane Signaling molecules are often present at low concentrations. Compared to CAMs, cell signaling receptors have high affinity for their ligands.
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The manner in which the signal is presented to the receptor defines four basic “styles” of local and long distance cell signaling Development Immune response Taken up by target cells Destroyed by extracellular enzymes Immobilized by ECM Chemical synapse
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Relatively slow Faster; upto 100 meters/sec Diluted. Act at low concentrations (10 -8 M) Concentrated (5X10 -4 M) High affinity receptors Low affinity receptors Signaling not so prescise Extremely prescise both in time and space The speed of response also depends on the type of changes within the cell Changes to proteins>> faster. Changes to gene expression>> Slower
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