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Unformatted text preview: feature 74 I E E E S O F T W A R E P u b l i s h e d b y t h e I E E E C o m p u t e r S o c i e t y 0 74 0 -74 5 9 / 0 8 / $ 2 5 . 0 0 © 2 0 0 8 I E E E e s tima tion Achievements and Challenges in Cocomo- Based Software Resource Estimation Barry W. Boehm, University of Southern California Ricardo Valerdi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology A look at the Cocomo suite of models provides an overview of the achievements of software resource estimation over the last 40 years. S oftware resource estimation methods and models have had a major impact on successful software engineering practice. They provide milestone budgets and schedules that help projects determine when they are making satisfactory prog- ress and when they need corrective action. They help decision makers analyze software cost-schedule-value trade-offs and make decisions regarding investments, out- sourcing, COTS products, and legacy software phaseouts. They help organizations prior- itize investments in improving software productivity, quality, and time to market. They are included as essential capabilities in virtually all major software capability maturity models, soft- ware engineering textbooks, and software engi- neering bodies of knowledge. A counterpart appreciation of their contribution involves what happens to projects that go forward without good estimates of their milestone budgets and schedules. All too frequently, such projects commit to develop too much software within the agreed-on budget and schedule, have no frame- work to determine whether they are on track, and end up with serious overruns or are terminated. The Standish Group’s 2000–2006 Chaos surveys produced data on the percentage of projects that underperformed in certain areas in a particular year (see Table 1). 1 In light of these results, the importance of soft- ware resource estimation is at center stage. This article provides an overview of early and interme- diate achievements from the perspective of the Co- como (Constructive Cost Model) suite of models as well as a look to future challenges. (For more on the relationship between estimation and other software engineering areas, see the related sidebar on p. 76.) Early achievements: 1965–1985 The earliest achievements in software resource es- timation are tied to specific models developed, calibrated, and published as early as 1965. Table 2 lists the most prominent of these models. For back- ground, we explain how some of these models in- fluenced Cocomo’s evolution over the last 27 years. The search for good model forms The most critical early resource-estimation-model- ing issue was to find the right parametric forms for estimating software project effort and schedules....
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This note was uploaded on 05/26/2011 for the course PM 199 taught by Professor Dr.atif during the Spring '11 term at University of Engineering & Technology.
- Spring '11