What is Baroque?(Turn of the 17thcentury)•Like Gothic, Baroque was originally a pejorativeterm. It is a French variant of the Portuguesebarroco, meaning an irregular, and thereforeimperfect, pearl. The Italians used the wordbaroccoto describe a convoluted medieval style ofacademic logic.•Relatively unrestrained, overtly emotional andmore energetic than earlier styles.•Baroque artists rejected aspects of Manneristvirtuosity and stylization, while absorbing theMannerists’ taste forchiaroscuroand theatricaleffects. They were more likely than Manneristartists to pursue the study of naturalism thatreflects some of the scientific advances of the
What makes Baroque lookBaroque?David, 1623,Bernini,Baroque•New taste for dramatic actionand violent narrative scenes•Emotion is given a wide rangeof expression – a departurefrom the Renaissance adherenceto Classical restraint•Baroque color and light aredramatically contrasted andsurfaces are richly textured•Landscape genre, and still life,which had originated asseparate but minor categories ofpainting in the sixteenthcentury, gained new status inthe seventeenth. Allegory alsotakes on a new significance inBaroque art and is no longerfound primarily in a biblicalcontext.David, 1504,Michelangelo, HighRenaissanceCompareto
FrancescoBorromini(1599-1667)•Bernini’s greatest professional rivalin Rome. They collaborated on thebaldacchino, but immediatelyafterward their interests diverged.•From about 1634 to his death,Borromini worked on theTrinitarian monastery of San Carloalle Quattro Fontane (St. Charles atthe Four Fountains) in Rome,named after the fountains at thefour corners of the streetintersection.•The small monastery church isBorromini’s best-known building,and it established his reputation fordaring architectural innovation (c.1634-1667).St. Charles at the FourFountains
Caravaggio (1571-1610)•Michelangelo Merisi was the leadingBaroque painter in Rome, also calledCaravaggio because he was born in thesmall northern Italian town ofCaravaggio and he did not want to beconfused with Michelangelo diLodovico Buonarroti Simoni.•In about 1590, Caravaggio moved toRome where his propensity for violencelanded him in repeated difficulties.•In his relatively short life, despite theinterruptions to his career caused bybrushed with the law, Caravaggioworked in an innovative style thatinfluenced painters in Italy andNorthern Europe.