Mycological_terms (1) -...

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Mycological (and other) terms to know for INDV 103,  Mushrooms, Molds, and Man 1. Fungus : any organism in the Kingdom Fungi 2. Fungus-like organism : several groups of organisms in the Kingdoms Protista (the slime molds) and Chromista (or Stramenopila, the water molds) that resemble Fungi in several ways 3. Mushroom : there are two uses for this word. One is general, any soft, fleshy, macroscopic fruiting body of a fungus. Most are basidiomycetes, but a few notable ascomycetes. The second term is more specific. It is used to describe any “toadstool-like” fruiting body in the Division Basidiomycota that in the an garic or bolete. For example: Note: one has gills (the agaric) and one has pores (the bolete) Parts of a mushroom are the pileus (the cap), the stipe (the stem), and the lamellae (gills or pores depending on the species). Some mushroom also have an annulus and a volva (diagnostic for the poisonous Amanita mushrooms, an agaric). 4. Shelf or bracket fungus : possesses a fruiting body that lies horizontally, parallel to the ground, often disc shaped. May be soft (a mushroom) or hard and woody (a conk). Most grow from wood. Most have pores rather than gills. Many are perennial and have yearly growth rings. Nearly all are basidiomycetes. 5. Molds : fungi growing in the filamentous form (not a mushroom). Nearly all fungi are molds for much of their life cycle. More commonly, the term mold is used for filamentous fungi that do not produce large macroscopic fruiting bodies.
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6. Yeast : a unicellular fungus in the Ascomycota. Saccharomycete is the genus most known for brewing and breadmaking. Some species can form very primitive mycelia. 7. Black yeast : a unicellular fungus in the Basidiomycota. Most are dimorphic, meaning they grow as a filament under certain conditions and the grow as unicellular fungi under other conditions. 8. Cup fungi : small fleshy cups (many have stalks) that bear fungal spores inside the cup area. Most are Ascomycetes. 9. Jelly fungi : just like they sound…the are gelatinous. Basidiomycetes with the hymenium on the outside covering the jelly structure. 10.
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