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Unit I Ch3 Bio Molecules - Chapter 3 Biological Molecules...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Chapter 3 Chapter 1 Molecules Organic: C + H C backbone Functional Groups Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids Inorganic: the rest: CO2, H2O, NaCl Chapter 3 Chapter 2 Functional Groups, I Hydrogen • Polar / Nonpolar H Hydroxyl • Polar OH Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Functional Groups, II Carboxyl (Carboxylic acid) • Polar COOH Amine or Amino • Polar NH2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Functional Groups, III Phosphate • Polar H2PO4 Methyl • Nonpolar CH3 Chapter 3 Chapter 5 Joining Organic Molecules Monomer Polymer 1 part many parts Monosaccharide Carbohydrate Amino Acid Protein Nucleotide Nucleic Acid Chapter 3 Chapter 6 H2O removed, polymer formed H2O added, polymer digested 7 Proteins Enzyme: protein catalyst Hormone Structure: elastin for skin; keratin (hair, horns, claws); spider & moth cocoon silk Energy: casein in milk, albumin in egg Transport: hemoglobin to carry oxygen in blood Cell Movement: actin & myosin = contractile proteins in muscle Antibodies: fight disease & infection Membrane proteins: Transport, Receptor, Recognition Poisons: rattlesnake venom Prions: “mad cow disease”Chapter 3 Chapter Hair Spiderweb Horn 8 Amino acid (monomer) Protein (polymer) 20 different “R” Groups = 20 diff amino acids Carboxylic Acid Group Amine Group R “Alpha” Carbon The “R” Group Placeholder Chapter 3 Chapter 9 Amino Acids: Glutamic Acid Structure Amine Group Carboxylic Acid Group “Alpha” Carbon Glutamic Acid “R” Group Chapter 3 Chapter 10 Amino Acids: Arginine Structure Carboxylic Acid Group Amine Group “Alpha” Carbon Arginine “R” Group Chapter 3 Chapter 11 Amino Acids: Phenylalanine Structure Carboxylic Acid Group Amine Group “Alpha” Carbon Phenylalanine “R” Group Chapter 3 Chapter 12 Amino Acids: Leucine Structure Carboxylic Acid Group Amine Group Leucine “R” Group Chapter 3 Chapter 13 Peptide Bond Formation Phenylalanine Leucine By Dehydration Synthesis between COOH & NH2 Chapter 3 Chapter 14 Phenylalanine­Leucine Dipeptide The Peptide Bond Water Chapter 3 Chapter 15 Chapter 3 Chapter 16 Hemoglobin Protein Structure Denature: lose 3­D structure & function Primary (Sequence) Tertiary (Bending) Quaternary (Layering) Secondary (Coiling) Chapter 3 Chapter 17 3­D Protein structures Silk 18 18 S | S | S | | S | S S | S | | | S | S | | | | S S | S | S | S | | S | | S S --S—S-- | | S | S | S | | | | S S S | | --S—S-- | S S | --S—S-- | | --S—S-- Permanent Wave Naturally Curly Hair S | | Straight Hair --S—S-- a. a. Cysteine: can can make disulfide bonds/bridges bonds/bridges Hair 19 19 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates 1C:2H:1O or (CH2O)n Hydrophilic, taste sweet Primary Energy Source for animals Monosaccharides Disaccharides Short term Energy Glucose + Fructose 6 C = Hexose Sucrose Glucose + Galactose Lactose Glucose + Glucose Maltose 5 C = Pentose Polysaccharides Polysaccharides Long Term Energy Structural Support Glycogen: stored in liver & muscles of animals Cellulose: makes cells wall of every plant cell Starch: roots & seeds of plants Chitin: fungal wall, exoskeletons Lubricating fluids in corneas of eyes and skeletal joints Also part of mucus, some hormones, cell I.D. proteins, nucleic acids Dehydration Synthesis Glucose OH group from 1,4 C’s of glucose used for dehydration synthesis Potato Starch long term energy storage Sucralose (in Splenda) 600x sweeter than sucrose in > 4500 foods & beverages 22 22 Chapter 3 23 Plant Structural Support: Cellulose OO CH2OH CH2OH OO OO CH2OH OO OO OH Chapter 3 Chapter CH2OH OO OH CH2OH OO OO HO CH2OH CH2OH HO OH OH OO HO CH2OH OO OH HO CH2OH CH2OH OO OO CH2OH CH2OH OO OH HO OH OH CH2OH OO HO CH2OH OO CH2OH OH24 Chitin Structural Support for: Insect, crab, lobster exoskeleton Fungal cell wall Like cellulose, but with nitrogen Strong, very resistant to digestion Chapter 3 Chapter 25 Chapter 3 Chapter 26 Lipids Hetergeneous group large regions of C & H nonpolar & hydrophobic FATTY ACID TYPES Triglycerides Fats, Oils long term energy storage 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids Phospholipids Bilayer makes membrane 1 glycerol + 2 fatty acids + polar head group Waxes Plant/animal water­ proof covering 27 27 Triglyceride formation (fats/oils) 1 Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids Chapter 3 Chapter 28 Triglyceride formation (fats/oils) Triglyceride H Glycerol Remove These Waters Add 3 Fatty Acids HC OH OH CO HC H HC H HC H H H H C OH OH CO HC H HC H HC H H CH OH OH CO HC H HC H HC H H Chapter 3 Chapter H H H HC O CO HC H CO HC H HC H HC H HC H H HC H H HOH C O CO HC H CO HC H HC H HC H HC H H HC H H HOH CH O CO HC H CO HC H HC H HC H HC H H HC H H HOH 3 Waters 29 Fatty Acid determines properties of Fatty Acid determines properties of lipid Fats Oils Trans Saturated w/H 0nly C­C Solid Unsaturated one or more Liquid C=C C=C C­C Partially hydrogenated oil From animals: beef, bacon, butter From seeds of plants: corn, peanut, canola oil Unnatural and harmful! Chemical Potential Energy Fats, Oils 9.3 cal/gram Carbohydrates & Proteins 4.1 cal/gram Chapter 3 Chapter 31 Phospholipids: bulk of membranes (hydrophilic) polar head glycerol backbone (hydrophobic) 2 x fatty acid tails 32 phospholipid extracellular fluid (watery environment) hydrophilic heads hydrophobic tails bilayer hydrophilic heads cytoplasm (watery environment) Chapter 3 Phospholipid bilayer makes up membranes 33 Chapter 3 34 Lipids Testosterone STEROID TYPES complex ring types Estradiol Sex Steroids Androgens Estrogens Progestagens Anabolic Steroids Increase muscle & bone synthesis Cholesterol Natural substance Cholesterol 35 35 Lipoproteins carry cholesterol and triglycerides in blood LDL HDL Bad kind Good kind Low density lipoprotein High density lipoprotein less protein, more lipid more protein, less lipid clogs arteries removes LDL (plaque) from bloodstream 36 36 Chapter 3 Chapter 37 Nucleic Acids Nucleotides = Monomer = Phospate + Sugar + Base ATP, NADH, NADPH, FADH2: Energy­carriers cAMP: Intracellular chemical messenger Coenzymes: nucleotide + vitamin = promote & guide chemical reactions Nucleic Acids = Polymer DNA: Genes / Chromosomes = storage of hereditary info RNA: Manages protein synthesis Chapter 3 Chapter 38 DNA Nucleotide Structure (Adenine) DNA = Deoxyribonucleic Acid Deoxyribose Sugar RNA = Ribonucleic Acid Ribose Sugar (Deoxyribose) Chapter 3 Chapter 39 DNA double DNA double helix Cyclic AMP Adenosine Monophosphate NH2 NCCN HC CH C N CH2 O N Ribose H H H H Used for intracellular communication O O P OH O Chapter 3 Chapter OH 41 ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Used for energy transfer Chapter 3 Chapter 42 From Vitamin B5 + From Vitamin B5 + Ribo­nucleotide Coenzymes help enzymes Chapter 3 Chapter 44 ...
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