Unit II Ch4 Cell_1 - Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function Cell Theory Cell Theory Living things composed of ≥ 1 cells Cells are basic unit structure/function Cells come from preexisting cells Prokaryotic Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Who came 1st? ME NOT ME Size Smaller 1 – 5 µm Larger 8 – 100 µm Nucleus No Nucleoid Region YES Chromosome 1 circular ring many linear Membranous Organelles NO YES = more complex All cells have: Plasma membrane, Cytoplasm, Ribosomes Prokaryotic Bacteria Prokaryotic Bacteria rod, spherical, or spiral shaped DNA: 1 circular nucleoid DNA chromosome; no nucleus + Plasmid: non essential DNA (now used for molecular biology) Pili (hair­like), capsules & slime layers help adhere to cells Food granule for energy storage Prokaryotic Archaea Prokaryotic Archaea Acids, alkaline, high salt, high/low temp environments Marsh muds, bottom ocean, petroleum deposits Digestive tracts of cows, termites, marine life & produce methane Lives in geothermallly heated sediments near volcanic island Lives in extreme heat in deep sea vents Inner Life of a Cell How leukocytes (WBCs) move in blood vessels and respond to epithelial cells near injury Animals Animals Plants Centrioles (make protein spindle Yes No Cilia / Flagella Yes No Cell wall No Yes Central Vacuole (1 membrane) No Yes Plastids (double membrane) incl. Chloroplast No Yes microtubules during mitosis) Cytoplasm most metabolism occurs here mRNA Protein Cytosol = liquid portion incl. H2O, salts, organics + organelles, ribosomes, uncoiled condensed/coiled Nucleus Nucleus Control center (DNA RNA) DNA + proteins = Chromosome Nuclear envelope Nuclear Pores double membrane allow molecules to pass Ribosome Ribosome makes protein from mRNA instructions free in cytoplasm Endoplasmic Reticulum on outside of Rough ER interconnected membrane enclosed tubes & channels Smooth ER Lipid synthesis Vesicles w/proteins bud off to Golgi Liver: detoxification Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus Vesicles in/out membrane bound sacs w/proteins Modifies proteins adds carbs to make glycoproteins large proteins smaller ones Packages proteins according to destination into Vesicles Synthesizes polysaccharides like cellulose, pectin for Lysosome (1 membrane) Lysosome contains intracellular digestive (hydrolytic) enzymes in animals merge w/ Food Vacuoles (1 membrane) from phagocytosis digest & recycle excess membranes, damaged organelles Contractile Vacuole Contractile Vacuole (1 membrane) in freshwater Protist like Paramecium salts pumped into collecting ducts hypertonic H20 flows in Reservoir contracts expels H20 animation Cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton thin MICROFILAMENTS thick MICROTUBULES MOVEMENT cell, organelle, cell division medium INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS SHAPE/SUPPORT PROTEIN anchor for organelles, enzymes in metabolic pathways Microtubules make up cilia/flagella Microtubules make up cilia/flagella Mitochondria (double membrane) Mitochondria site of Aerobic Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 or 38 ATP + heat has DNA, 70S ribosomes, self­replicating Endosymbiont Hypothesis: chloroplasts & mitochondria were once prokaryotes Plastid (double membrane) Plastid only in Plants & Photosynthetic Protists (algae) Chloroplast is one; site of Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 = energy supply has DNA, ribosomes, self­replicating other Plastids other Plastids Chromoplast stores pigments in tomato plants Amyloplasts store starch in potato cells Central Vacuole (1 membrane, only in Plants) storage of pigments, acids, salts, wastes, sugars, amino acids hypertonic water flows in; can be 90% cell volume provides turgor pressure support for non­woody parts of plant Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Normal Plant Cell Deprived Deprived of Water Normal Dehydrated Cell Wall Cell Space between Cell Wall and Cell Membrane Cell Wall Cell Wall in plants (cellulose), fungi (chitin), algae protists, prokaryotes SUPPORT, PROTECTION porous, non­living, made from polysaccharides secreted through plasma membrane ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/26/2011 for the course BIO 111 taught by Professor Osikanlu during the Spring '09 term at Moraine Valley Community College.

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