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WT 4e, chap 05-Consciousness - chapter 5 Consciousness...

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Consciousness: Body rhythms and mental states chapter 5
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Overview Biological rhythms Rhythms and “PMS” The rhythms of sleep Exploring the dream world The riddle of hypnosis Consciousness-altering drugs chapter 5
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Understanding biological  rhythms Consciousness Awareness of oneself and the environment Biological rhythms A periodic, more or less regular fluctuation in a biological  system; may or may not have psychological implications Waxing and waning of hormone levels, urine volume, blood  pressure and responsiveness of brain cells to stimulation chapter 5
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Endogenous biological  rhythms Rhythms  that continue to occur even in the absence of external  time cues They are generated from within Circadian rhythms Rhythms that occur about every 24 hours Example: the sleep-wake cycle, temperature (peaks in late  afternoon, low point through morning) Other rhythms on different schedule- 28 days-  menstrual cycle 90 min-  physiological changes during sleep, stomach  contractions, hormone levels, susceptibility to visual illusions,  verbal and spatial performance, brain waves during cognitive  tasks, alertness and daydreaming chapter 5
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Circadian rhythms Occur in animals, plants, and people To study endogenous circadian rhythms, scientists isolate  volunteers from time cues . If allowed daytime naps- most people settle in a day that  averages 24.3 hours Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) Located in hypothalamus controls circadian rhythms regulates melatonin chapter 5
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Internal desynchronization A state when biological rhythms are not in phase  with each other Circadian rhythms are influenced by changes in  routine. Airplane flights across time zones (hormone and temp levels several days to adjust) Adjusting to new work shifts Illness, stress, fatigue, excitement, drugs, and mealtimes Vary between individuals- genetic differences chapter 5
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Moods and long-term  rhythms Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) A controversial disorder in which a person  experiences depression during the Winter and an  improvement of mood in the Spring. Extrapolating from case studies- 20% National survey- 8% Treatment involves phototherapy or exposure to  fluorescent light. Not enough good research, but evidence suggests reduced symptoms chapter 5
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Menstrual cycles and mood Physical symptoms are common Cramps, breast tenderness, and water retention Emotional symptoms are rare Irritability and depression Fewer than 5% of women have symptoms  predictably.
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