WT 4e, chap 07-Thinking & Intelligence

WT 4e, chap 07-Thinking & Intelligence - chapter 7

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Thinking and intelligence chapter 7
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Overview Thought: Using what we know Reasoning rationally Barriers to reasoning rationally Intelligence The origins of intelligence Animal minds chapter 7
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Elements of cognition Concept Mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties Basic concepts have a moderate number of instances and are easier to acquire. A prototype is an especially representative example. Proposition A meaningful unit, built of concepts, expressing a single idea Schema An integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic. Image A mental representation that resembles what it represents chapter 7
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Your turn “To get a hamburger, go to a fast-food restaurant and wait in line behind the counter. When it is your turn, tell the person by the cash register that you want a hamburger. He/she will tell you how much it costs. Give him/her enough money. In a few minutes someone behind the counter will give you a hamburger.” This kind of mental representation is best described as a: 1. Concept 2. Proposition 3. Schema 4. Image chapter 7
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Your turn “To get a hamburger, go to a fast-food restaurant and wait in line behind the counter. When it is your turn, tell the person by the cash register that you want a hamburger. He/she will tell you how much it costs. Give him/her enough money. In a few minutes someone behind the counter will give you a hamburger.” This kind of mental representation is best described as a: 1. Concept 2. Proposition 3. Schema 4. Image chapter 7
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How conscious is thought? Subconscious processes Mental processes occurring outside of conscious awareness but accessible to consciousness when necessary Nonconscious processes Mental processes occurring outside of and not available to consciousness chapter 7
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Types of conscious  processes Implicit learning When you have acquired knowledge about something without being aware how you did so, and without being able to state exactly what you have learned Mindlessness Mental inflexibility, inertia, and obliviousness in the present context chapter 7
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Reasoning The drawing of conclusions or inferences from observations, facts, or assumptions chapter 7
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Deductive reasoning A tool of formal logic in which a conclusion necessarily follows from a set of premises. chapter 7
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WT 4e, chap 07-Thinking & Intelligence - chapter 7

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