WT 4e, chap 10-2 - chapter 10 Definitions Norms Rules that...

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Definitions Norms Rules that regulate human life, including social conventions, explicit laws, and implicit cultural standards -Enforce with threats of punishment and encourage with rewards Role A given social position that is governed by a set of norms for proper behavior (gender roles, occupational roles & family roles) -Social roles can be so strong that they can cause people to behave in ways that are inconsistent with the type of person that they are Culture A program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or society, and a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community chapter 10
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If you were involved in a study on learning and punishment….
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Your turn As part of an experiment on learning, you are told to administer an electric shock to another participant every time that participant misremembers a series of words. As the experiment proceeds, the amount of electricity you are administering rises. You started at 15 volts, but the switchboard goes up to 300. How far would you go before you refused to continue? 1. 50 volts 2. 100 volts 3. 200 volts 4. 300 volts chapter 10
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The obedience study Stanley Milgram and coworkers investigated whether people would follow orders, even when the order violated their ethical standards. Participants thought that they were in an experiment on the effects of learning on punishment. Assigned what seemed to be at random, but learners were actually actors. SLIGHT SHOCK to DANGER-SEVERE SHOCK to XXX chapter 10
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Milgram’s Study Most people were far more obedient than anyone expected. Every single participant complied with at least some orders to shock another person. Two-thirds shocked the learner to the full extent (CLIP) Results are controversial and have generated further research on violence and obedience.
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Factors leading to  disobedience Nothing the victim said or did affected obedience Critical Factors : When the experimenter left the room When the “learner” was in the same room When the experimenter issued conflicting orders When the person ordering them to continue was an ordinary man When the subject worked with peers who refused to go on chapter 10
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Milgram’s Conclusion It was more a function of the situation than the particular personalities of the participants
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The prison study Subjects were physically and mentally healthy young men who volunteered to participate for money. They were randomly assigned to be prisoners or guards. Those assigned the role of prisoner became distressed, helpless, and panicky. Those assigned the role of guards became either nice, “tough but fair,” or tyrannical. Study had to be ended after six days. (CLIP) chapter 10
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Conclusions Researchers first concluded that this study showed how powerful a social role is Recently, others have criticized, arguing that this is only exemplifying the power of obedience
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Factors in obedience Positive consequences for obedience Convinced of authority’s legitimacy
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WT 4e, chap 10-2 - chapter 10 Definitions Norms Rules that...

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