Chapter_6.4[1] - Chapter 6 Chapter ATTENTION &...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6 Chapter ATTENTION & MEMORY Information Processing Information Sensory Memory ­Holds a lot of information for 1­3 seconds ­Must attend to or will be lost ­Attentional processes affected by aging Short­term Memory/ Working Memory ­Holds 5­7 chunks for about 30 seconds ­Use memory strategies to get to LTM Long­term Memory ­Unlimited and permanent Encoding Encoding Elaborative Rehearsal Making connections between new information and information already stored Older adults have more difficulty making connections. However, once connections made, older adults maintain those memories just as well as younger adults Younger adults outperform older adults for intentional memory, but not incidental memory 35% of older adults vs. 49% of younger adults use optimal strategies for encoding Large age difference in recall even when older adults were instructed to use effective strategies Retrieval Retrieval More age differences on free­recall tests (no cues present) than recognition tests Prefrontal activity during memory performance is less lateralized in older adults than younger adults Automatic Retrieval Automatic Conscious recollection lower for older adults than younger adults, but automatic retrieval (familiarity testing) didn’t differ Source Memory Source Ability to remember the source of a familiar event as well as determine if event was imagined or actually experienced Older adults less accurate at a number of source memory tasks (identifying speaker of info) However, when task was more emotional in nature (speaker good or evil) performed as well as younger adults False Memory False When one remembers items/event that did NOT occur Older adult greater false memories on word lists Have more false memories because more difficulty in linking content info to context/source When older adults warned beforehand to examine the origin of info false memories are reduced Older adults worse at picking out perpetrator in eye­witness identifications However, difference not seen if viewed old faces instead of young faces Could make more susceptible to deception or scams ...
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