CHAPTER 2 NOTESEngland’s Imperial Stirrings-religious conflict disrupted England going overseas because King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, launching the English Protestant Reformation. But after the Protestant Elizabeth ascended to the English throne in 1558, Protestantism became dominant in England, and the rivalry with Catholic Spain increasedElizabeth Energizes England-encouraged by the ambitious Elizabeth I hardy English buccaneers now swarmed out upon the shipping lanes. The most famous of these semi-practical “sea dogs” was the courtly Sir Francis Drake. He swashbuckled and looted his way around the planet, returning in 1580 with his ship heavily ballasted with Spanish booty-Sir Walter Raliegh organized an expedition that first landed in 1585 on North Carolina’s RoanokeIsland, off the coast of Virginia— a vaguely defined region named in honor of Elizabeth the “Virgin Queen.” This colony mysteriously vanished.-Philip II of Spain, self-anointed foe of the Protestant Reformation, used part of his imperial gains to amass an “Invincible Armada,” of ships for an invasion of England. The English sea dogs fought back, using a craft that were swifter, maneuverable, and more ably manned, they inflicted heavy damage on the cumbersome, overladen Spanish ships. Then a devastating storm arose (the “Protestant” wind), scattering the crippled Spanish fleet. The rout of the Spanish Armada marked the beginning of the end of Spanish imperial dreams, through Spain’s New World empire would not fully collapse for three more centuries.-The victory over the Spanish Armada started England on its way to becoming master of the world's oceans. England had many of the characteristics that Spain displayed on the eve of its colonizing adventure a century earlier: a strong, unified national state under a popular monarch; a measure of religious unity after a protracted struggle between Protestants and Catholics; and a vibrant sense of nationalism and national destiny-When England and Spain finally signed a treaty of peace in 1604, the English people were poised to plunge headlong into the planting of their own colonial empire in the New WorldEngland on the Eve of Empire-In the ever-green English countryside, landlords were “enclosing” croplands for sheep grazing, forcing many small farmers into precarious tenancy or off the land altogether-When the economic depression hit the woolen trade in the late 1500s, thousands of footloose farmers took to the roads. They often ended up as beggars and paupers in cities like Bristol and London -Primogenituredecreed that only the eldest sons were eligible to inherit landed estates-Joint-stock company, forerunner of the modern corporation, was perfected, a considerable number of investors, called “adventurers,” were able to pool their capital.
England Plants the Jamestown Seedling-a joint-stock company, known as the Virginia Company of London, received a charter from King James I of England for a settlement in the New World. The main attraction was the promise