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1 BIOLOGY 205/SECTION 7 DEVELOPMENT- LILJEGREN Lecture #1 INTRODUCTION TO DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Ppts posted by 5 pm the day before class. Lecture notes posted after class. If you come to class you will notice that some material covered is NOT posted, consider this as *bonus material* that is fair game for exams. 1. What is the study of development? The process by which a fertilized egg transforms itself into a complex organism is one of the most exciting and complex mysteries in the field of biology! How does it happen?? Each of us sitting in this room developed from a single egg! Developmental Biology is the study of a PROCESS whereby a single cell divides and selectively activates expression of genes to produce a complex organism composed of many cell types. Ex ovo omnia=all from the egg. 1651 William Harvey proposed that all animals originate from eggs What are the types of PROCESSES required? 2. A central idea of development that we will talk about many times the rest of the semester is DIFFERENTIATION: ALL CELLS HAVE THE SAME DNA, BUT DIFFERENT CELLS EXPRESS DIFFERENT GENES. This is called DIFFERENTIATION. Since different cell types express different genes, different cell types possess different cellular machinery. Different cells specialize to do different jobs. We will learn how this happens, how cells learn to activate different sets of instructions that lead to production of different proteins. DIVERSITY: Earth's myriad animals & plants display an incredible diversity of body plans, and yet share many conserved developmental mechanisms, evidence of their evolution from a common ancestor. Our challenge is to understand both this diversity and this unity. Interesting differences between plant and animal development will be addressed later. Giant sequoia, general sherman tree=largest tree in the world 3. This PROCESS is studied using TOOLS, many of which you have already heard about: a) Cell Biology - how cells are made, move, and talk to each other b) Genetics - what is the role of specific proteins? study the effect of mutations on developmental processes c) Molecular Biology - how cells selectively activate a subset of genes that will produce a unique set of cellular traits What does this mean? You will now take your box of biological tools and use them to understand how development occurs.
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2 Before we discuss some developmental mechanisms, let’s REVIEW THE BASICS 1. The body is made of millions to billions of cells .
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