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DBLecture2posted - Model Organisms in Developmental Biology...

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1 Model Organisms in Developmental Biology Plants Invertebrates Vertebrates Why use model organisms? What features do they have in common?
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Contrasting genome sizes in model organisms SMALL Mb=megabases =1,000,000 base pairs of DNA (million) LARGE Gb=gigabases=1,000,000,000 base pairs of DNA (billion) 120 Mb 3 Gb
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3 Model Organisms: Arabidopsis Small weed, member of the mustard family can fit thousands of plants into a small growth room Short generation time (= time from seed to seed ) for a plant: 6 weeks history--most intensely studied plant for past 15 years, genome sequenced, excellent genetics and experimental tools developed Small Genome = 125 Mb ~10 times yeast (12 Mb)
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4 Model Organisms: C. elegans Very small, so 10,000 worms can be kept on a Petri dish. Short generation time (= time between equivalent stages in adult and progeny )- 3 days . Embryo is transparent and develops outside the body in a short time (14 hours!!) - so can watch development with a microscope. 1031 cells in an adult, and the lineage of each cell is known. very cheap to keep. Small Genome = 100 Mb
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5 Model Organisms: Drosophila small (adult < 5 mm long). Can keep hundreds in a small vial. short generation time - 8 days embryo develops outside the body in a short time - so can easily study development history - scientists have been doing genetics and collecting mutations for many years (since 1910) very cheap to keep. Small Genome = 120 Mb
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6 Model Organisms: Xenopus vertebrates embryos develop outside the body in a short time - reach tadpole stage in 2-3 days embryos are HUGE!! So many historical (and modern) experiments have been done using frogs relatively inexpensive because you can get lots of embryos from one
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DBLecture2posted - Model Organisms in Developmental Biology...

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