DBLecture7posted

DBLecture7posted - Induction information from neighbors...

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Induction: information from neighbors influences cell fate inducer responder
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If induction tells cells what to do, how do they remember these instructions for a lifetime? ? DETERMINATION
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DETERMINATION: internal and self-perpetuating changes that distinguish a cell & its descendents from other cells and commit them to a specialized course In other words, a cell is set to become a certain kind of cell before it actually becomes that type of cell. And usually there’s no turning back. This concept differs from fate in that for a time a cell’s fate can often be changed by changing environment; it differs from DIFFERENTIATION because this is overt cell specialization. FATE: what a cell will become at a later time--its future! DIFFERENTIATION: the actual elaboration of a cell’s fate
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Determination can be assayed by transplantation experiments Late gastrula Early gastrula Transplant nervous system to epidermis and vice versa Cells alter their fate to match that of neighbors i.e. not determined Cells retain their original fates, regardless of neighbors i.e. determined (see also Figure 7.16)
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Cloning: the ultimate transplant experiment Dolly (and Bonnie) Figure 2.1
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Cloning: The ultimate transplant experiment Freddy , a cloned leopard frog ( Rana pipiens )
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How does cloning work? See Fig. 2.1 for how cloning works in sheep
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Cloning success drops dramatically as the age of the nuclear donor increases
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DETERMINATION results from heritable changes in gene expression
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