Lecture 12 - meristem organization

Lecture 12 - meristem organization - Shoot meristem...

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Shoot meristem self-organization and identity How can we use genetics to study shoot meristem organization? How do meristems maintain themselves? How do meristems change their character?
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Which cells are the stem cells? * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
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0d 1d 3d 5d Effect of ablation of quiescent center (QC) on tissue- specific marker gene expression (from Sabatini et al., 1999, Cell 99: 463-472) The Quiescent Center is the stem cell niche
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Vegetative shoot apical meristem (SAM)
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/outgrowth
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Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress, Thale cress) Small weed, related to mustard - can fit thousands of plants in a small area Short generation time: 6-8 weeks when pushed fast Diploid, self-pollinating, transformable Small sequenced genome: About 125 Mb and 25,000 genes
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Arabidopsis is closely related to these plants
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Other model plants
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Finding Arabidopsis mutants EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate) 3. Screen M2 plants for mutants having phenotypes of interest 2. Allow M1 plants to self- fertilize, collect M2 seed 1. Mutagenize seeds (M1)
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(from Long et al., 1996, Nature 379: 66-69) Wild-type shoot apex shootmeristemless apex
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Gene expression in embryonic SAM WUSCHEL ( WUS ) SHOOTMERISTEMLESS ( STM ) (from Laux et al., 1998, Cell 95: 805-815)
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wuschel mutant (from Laux et al., 1998, Cell 95: 805-815) Wild type
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Gene expression in embryo SAM WUSCHEL ( WUS ) SHOOTMERISTEMLESS ( STM ) (from Laux et al., 1998, Cell 95: 805-815)
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Lecture 12 - meristem organization - Shoot meristem...

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