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Lecture 18 - Adaptive immunity

Lecture 18 - Adaptive immunity - N C N C B cell development...

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Adaptive immunity How can the immune system recognize so many different (previously unseen) insults? How does the immune system learn? How do B cells produce antibodies?
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Antibody production after immunization
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Irradiation prevents immune response
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Which cells can restore the immune response?
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Origins of lymphocytes
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B cells T C (Cytotoxic T cells) T H (Helper T cells) Also function in immune system
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Origins of lymphocytes B cell activation and differentiation
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Origins of lymphocytes T cell activation
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Antibody protein structure
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B cell activation Each naïve B cell makes a single type of antibody with a unique binding specificity Upon activation the naïve B cell proliferates and produces progeny that secrete that antibody
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Antibody production after immunization
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Clonal selection
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Primary response Secondary response
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Antibody action: Activation of Complement Adaptive immunity (Innate immunity)
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Antibody action: Action of Complement
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Antibody action: IgG-mediated phagocytosis
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Antibody action: IgA is secreted
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Antibody action: IgE stimulates histamine production
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Antibody structure Heavy chain constant region determines antibody class
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Unformatted text preview: N C N C B cell development B cell development Heavy chain gene rearrangement Human heavy chain gene-segment pool 51 x 27 x 6 = 8262 possible H chain variable regions 40 x 5 = 200 possible κ light chain variable regions 116 possible λ chain variable regions 2.6 million possible antigen binding sites from gene segment combinations IgM IgD IgG IgE IgA B cell development Light chain gene rearrangement Human κ light-chain gene rearrangement Ab gene usage in a pre-B cell (allelic exclusion) (stops gene rearrangements) Clonal selection Memory cells : Somatic hypermutation in V regions Class switching Human heavy chain gene-segment pool 51 x 27 x 6 = 8262 possible H chain variable regions 40 x 5 = 200 possible κ light chain variable regions 116 possible λ chain variable regions 2.6 million possible antigen binding sites from gene segment combinations IgM IgD IgG IgE IgA Rearrangements in memory cells can put a different C region gene segment in register, thereby causing antibody class switching...
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