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6-xpf updated - PERSPECTIVES 60 Bajenaru M L et al Optic...

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© 2005 Nature Publishing Group 60. Bajenaru, M. L. et al . Optic nerve glioma in mice requires astrocyte Nf1 gene inactivation and Nf1 brain heterozygosity. Cancer Res . 63 , 8573–8577 (2003). 61. Bajenaru, M. L., Garbow, J. R., Perry, A., Hernandez, M. R. & Gutmann, D. H. Natural history of neurofibromatosis 1- associated optic nerve glioma in mice. Ann. Neurol. 57 , 119–127 (2005). 62. Reilly, K. M., Loisel, D. A., Bronson, R. T., McLaughlin, M. E. & Jacks, T. Nf1;Trp53 mutant mice develop glioblastoma with evidence of strain-specific effects. Nature Genet. 26 , 109–113 (2000). 63. Ridley, A. J., Paterson, H. F., Noble, M. & Land, H. Ras- mediated cell cycle arrest is altered by nuclear oncogenes to induce Schwann cell transformation. EMBO J. 7 , 1635–1645 (1988). 64. Dasgupta, B., Li, W., Perry, A., Gutmann, D. H. Glioma formation in neurofibromatosis 1 reflects preferential activation of K-RAS in astrocytes. Cancer Res . 65 , 236–245 (2005). 65. King, D., Yang, G., Thompson, M. A. & Hiebert, S. W. Loss of neurofibromatosis-1 and p19 ARF cooperate to induce a multiple tumor phenotype. Oncogene 21 , 4978–4982 (2002). 66. Reilly, K. M. et al . Susceptibility to astrocytoma in mice mutant for Nf1 and Trp53 is linked to chromosome 11 and subject to epigenetic effects. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 101 , 13008–13013 (2004). 67. Kim, J. Y. et al . Medulloblastoma tumorigenesis diverges from cerebellar granule cell differentiation in patched heterozygous mice. Dev. Biol . 263 , 50–66 (2003). 68. Goodrich, L. V., Milenkovic, L., Higgins, K. M. & Scott, M. P. Altered neural cell fates and medulloblastoma in mouse patched mutants. Science 277 , 1109–1113 (1997). 69. Singh, S. K. et al . Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells. Nature 432 , 396–401 (2004). 70. Singh, S. K. et al . Identification of a cancer stem cell in human brain tumors. Cancer Res . 63 , 5821–5828 (2003). 71. Woerner, B. et al . in Ninth Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuro-Oncology (ed. Bigner, D. D.) 323 (Duke Univ. Press, Toronto, Ontario Canada, 2004). 72. Dasgupta, B., Yi, Y., Chen, D. Y., Weber, J. D. & Gutmann, D. H. Proteomic analysis reveals hyperactivation of the mTOR pathway in NF1-associated human and mouse brain tumors. Cancer Res . 65 , 2755-2760 (2005). 73. Oliver T.G. et al . Loss of patched and disruption of granule cell development in a pre-neoplastic stage of medulloblastoma. Development 132 , 2425-2439 (2005) Acknowledgements The authors thank our Neurofibromatosis Center Group at Washington University, especially A. Perry, J. Weber, M. Watson and J. Garbow, as well as R. Wechsler-Reya for critical reading of the manuscript. D.H.G. is supported by grants from the Department of Defense, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, and James S. McDonnell Foundation. J.R. is a scholar of the Child Health Research Center of Excellence in Developmental Biology at Washington University School of Medicine and receives additional support from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, The American Cancer Society and Hope Street Kids. We also acknowledge the generous support from Schnuck Markets, Inc.
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