RafMelanoma

RafMelanoma - letters to nature . . Mutations of the BRAF...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
.............................................................. Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer Helen Davies 1,2 , Graham R. Bignell 1,2 , Charles Cox 1,2 , Philip Stephens 1,2 , Sarah Edkins 1 , Sheila Clegg 1 , Jon Teague 1 , Hayley Woffendin 1 , Mathew J. Garnett 3 , William Bottomley 1 , Neil Davis 1 , Ed Dicks 1 , Rebecca Ewing 1 , Yvonne Floyd 1 , Kristian Gray 1 , Sarah Hall 1 , Rachel Hawes 1 , Jaime Hughes 1 , Vivian Kosmidou 1 , Andrew Menzies 1 , Catherine Mould 1 , Adrian Parker 1 , Claire Stevens 1 , Stephen Watt 1 , Steven Hooper 3 , RebeccaWilson 3 , Hiran Jayatilake 4 , Barry A. Gusterson 5 , Colin Cooper 6 , Janet Shipley 6 , Darren Hargrave 7 , Katherine Pritchard-Jones 7 , Norman Maitland 8 , Georgia Chenevix-Trench 9 , Gregory J. Riggins 10 , Darell D. Bigner 10 , Giuseppe Palmieri 11 , Antonio Cossu 12 , Adrienne Flanagan 13 , Andrew Nicholson 14 Judy W. C. Ho 15 , Suet Y. Leung 16 , Siu T. Yuen 16 , Barbara L. Weber 17 , Hilliard F. Seigler 18 , Timothy L. Darrow 18 , Hugh Paterson 3 , Richard Marais 3 , Christopher J. Marshall 3 , Richard Wooster 1,6 , Michael R. Stratton 1,4 & P. Andrew Futreal 1 1 Cancer Genome Project, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, CB10 1SA, UK 3 Cancer Research UK Centre for Cell and Molecular Biology, Chester Beatty Labs, Institute of Cancer Research, London SW3 6JB, UK 4 Section of Cancer Genetics; 6 Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis; and 7 Section of Paediatrics, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG, UK 5 Department of Pathology, Western Infirmary, University of Glasgow, S11 6NT, UK 8 Department of Biology, YCR Cancer Research Unit, University of York, York YO10 5YW, UK 9 Queensland Institute of Medical Research, RBH Post Office Herston, Queensland 4029, Australia 10 Department of Pathology, and 18 Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Centre, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA 11 Institute of Molecular Genetics, C.N.R., Loc. Tramariglio, Alghero 07040, Italy 12 Department of Pathology, University of Sassari, Azienda USL1, Sassari 07100, Italy 13 Royal Free & University College Medical School, London WC1E 6JJ, UK 14 Royal Brompton Hospital, London SW3 6NP, UK 15 Department of Surgery, and 16 Department of Pathology, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong 17 Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA 2 These authors contributed equally to this work ............................................................................................................................................................................. Cancers arise owing to the accumulation of mutations in critical genes that alter normal programmes of cell proliferation, differ- entiation and death. As the first stage of a systematic genome- wide screen for these genes, we have prioritized for analysis signalling pathways in which at least one gene is mutated in human cancer. The RAS–RAF–MEK–ERK–MAP kinase pathway mediates cellular responses to growth signals 1 . RAS is mutated to an oncogenic form in about 15% of human cancer. The three RAF genes code for cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinases that are regulated by binding RAS 1–3 . Here we report BRAF somatic missense mutations in 66% of malignant melanomas and at lower frequency in a wide range of human cancers. All mutations
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 05/26/2011 for the course BIO 445 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at UNC.

Page1 / 6

RafMelanoma - letters to nature . . Mutations of the BRAF...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online