phylogenetics_vision_bio522spring10

phylogenetics_vision_bio522spring10 - Phylogenetics How do...

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1 Phylogenetics How do you interpret a tree? How do you build a tree? What are trees good for? Todd Vision Department of Biology UNC Chapel Hill BIOL 522 – Spring 2010 Ciccarel i et al. (2006) Science 311, 1283 Uncultured microbial diversity Hugenholtz P (2002) Microbial diversity in environmental samples Tringe et al. Science (2005) Science 308, 554
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2 Diversity in human gut microbial communities Ley et al. (2006) Cell 124, 837. Branch colors: Red, Blue, Yellow: unique to A, B or C White, shared Black, not observed 16s rRNA trees from 3 healthy individuals Phylogenetics How do you interpret a tree? How do you build a tree? What are trees good for? Baldauf 2003 A clade is a monophyletic group Are whales a clade?
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3 Is the frog more closely related to the Fsh or the human? Baum et al (2005) Science 310, 979-980. Now what do you think? Gene and species trees are frequently incongruent Error Lineage sorting Horizontal transfer Baldauf 2003 Paralogy due to gene duplication and loss Two classes of homologous genes Orthologs diverged through speciation Paralogs diverged through duplication, whether or not they are in the same genome
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4 Horizontal transfer Delwiche CF and Palmer JD (1996) Mol Biol Evol: 873-882. Phylogenetics How do you interpret a tree? How do you build a tree? What are trees good for? Phylogenetic methodology
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phylogenetics_vision_bio522spring10 - Phylogenetics How do...

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