vanderWoude2004PhaseAndAgVarClinMicroRev17581

vanderWoude2004PhaseAndAgVarClinMicroRev17581 - C LINICAL...

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Unformatted text preview: C LINICAL MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS, July 2004, p. 581–611 Vol. 17, No. 3 0893-8512/04/$08.00 1 DOI: 10.1128/CMR.17.3.581–611.2004 Copyright © 2004, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Phase and Antigenic Variation in Bacteria Marjan W. van der Woude 1 * and Andreas J. Ba¨umler 2 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6076 1 and Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Texas A & M University System Health Science Center, College Station, Texas 77843-1114 2 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................................581 PHASE-VARIABLE PHENOTYPES AND MOIETIES.........................................................................................582 Colony Morphology and Opacity..........................................................................................................................582 Capsule.....................................................................................................................................................................583 Fimbriae and Pili....................................................................................................................................................584 Flagella.....................................................................................................................................................................584 Other Surface-Exposed Proteins...........................................................................................................................584 LPS and LOS Modification: Variation in Expression of Surface Epitopes ...................................................585 DNA Restriction-Modification Systems ...............................................................................................................586 Regulatory Proteins................................................................................................................................................586 Metabolism-Associated Genes...............................................................................................................................586 Phage Genes ............................................................................................................................................................587 Concluding Remarks ..............................................................................................................................................587 MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF PHASE VARIATION...................................................................................587 Genetic Regulation..................................................................................................................................................587 Short sequence repeats and slipped-strand mispairing................................................................................587Short sequence repeats and slipped-strand mispairing....
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vanderWoude2004PhaseAndAgVarClinMicroRev17581 - C LINICAL...

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