A101.02GenVar_1

A101.02GenVar_1 - ANTHROPOLOGY101:...

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ANTHROPOLOGY 101: Introduction to Anthropology Unit 2 Human Variation 0. A central concern of biological anthropology is understanding the nature of the observable variation in  human beings 1. This variation occurs at both the individual and group level 2. 3. Sexual reproduction amplifies diversity by increasing the numbers of genetically distinct individuals 0. Each human is potentially capable of producing about 8,388,608 genetically distinct gametes (sex  cells)  1. Each pair of parents up to about 70 trillion genetically distinct offspring  Key Terms 0. Gene 0. A DNA sequence which codes for a particular protein which produces a particular physical trait  1. Allele 1. One of several versions of the same gene 2. Genotype 2. Your actual complete genetic inheritance 3. Phenotype 3. Your expressed genetic inheritance Genotype 4. Homozygous: 4. Receive two identical alleles for locus 5. Heterozygous: 5. Receive two different alleles for locus  Phenotype 6. The expressed form of the gene 7. The observable expression of an individual’s genetic make-up Phenotype vs. Genotype 8. Dominance: 6. Only one allele of heterozygous pair is expressed
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9. Co-Dominance: 7. Both alleles of heterozygous pair are expressed 10. Partial Dominance: 8. The expressed trait is intermediate between alleles of heterozygous pair Genetic Dominance 0. Blood-type A is dominant over O 0. A+A expresses A 1. O+O expresses O 2. A+O expresses A 1. In simple dominance, only one variant is expressed Genetic Dominance 4. The unexpressed variant (allele) is said to be recessive 3. Blood-type O is recessive 2. Recessive alleles only express if an individual receives 2 copies of the same allele Genetic Co-Dominance 3. 4. A+A expresses A 5. B+B expresses B 6. A+B expresses AB 4. In co-dominance, both variants are expressed Genetic Partial Dominance 5. 2. Red+Red expresses Red 3. White+White expresses White 4. Red+White expresses Pink 6. In partial dominance, the expressed trait is intermediate between the variants Polygenetic 7. genes ( polygenetic ) 8. EX: eye/skin/hair color, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder  Environmental Interaction 9. Actual genetic expression is partly influenced by environmental factors 10. Some genetic traits require environmental “triggers” to express 5. EX: Type II Diabetes, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia 11. Other genetic traits can be modified by environmental factors
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This note was uploaded on 05/26/2011 for the course ANTH 101 taught by Professor Engelhart during the Spring '09 term at Montana.

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A101.02GenVar_1 - ANTHROPOLOGY101:...

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