A101.04Orig

A101.04Orig - ANTHROPOLOGY 101: Introduction to...

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ANTHROPOLOGY 101: Introduction to Anthropology Unit 4 Human Origins Humans evolution is the story of our divergence from other primates and apes Humans differ from the other apes in several important ways These differences include differences in habitat, diet, posture, skin color & body hair, intelligence & cultural development Each of these differences impacts a variety of physical subsystems Habitat Arboreal forest vs. terrestrial savannah Human ancestors moved from the trees to the grasslands Impacted on: Diet Teeth Posture Hands/Feet Apes vs. Humans Diet: Related impacts on: Teeth Face
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Skull All reduced in humans Posture Shift from quadrupedal to bipedal posture Impacted: Hip Knee Leg Bone Proportions Feet Spinal Curvature/Alignment Position of Foramen Magnum Hair/Skin
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Impacts: Humans hairless Originally uniformly dark skinned Culture Increased Reliance On Learned Behavior Cranial Capacity Cranial Conformation Tooth Reduction Canine Reduction? Jaw Reduction Hands
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Skull Features Early Hominids
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The evolutionary line leading to humans diverged from that leading to chimpanzees and bonobos between 5 million and perhaps as much as 8 million years ago Unfortunately almost no ape fossils have been found dating between 13.5 million and 5 million years ago The oldest certain hominid finds date 4.5 million years ago Earliest Human Ancestors Possible ancestral species: Sahelanthropus tchadensis 7 million years ago from western Chad Hominid teeth, but otherwise ape-like Possible ancestral species: Orrorin tugenensis 6 mya, from Kenya Possibly bipedal (based on femoral head) Possible ancestral species: Kenyanthropos platyops 3.5 million years ago from Kenya contemporaneous with East African Australopithecines Leakey thinks direct ancestor to Homo Ardipithecus ramidus ca 4.5 million years ago from Aramis, Ethiopia Most likely the earliest true hominid Probably bipedal, but otherwise very apelike Femur shows bipedal adaptations Feet seem adapted to bipedalism
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Early Australopithecines The earliest definite hominids are the australopithecines A highly variable group of species At least 6 distinct species defined Generally divided into
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This note was uploaded on 05/26/2011 for the course ANTH 101 taught by Professor Engelhart during the Spring '09 term at Montana.

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A101.04Orig - ANTHROPOLOGY 101: Introduction to...

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