A101.06HomoSapiens

A101.06HomoSapiens - ANTHROPOLOGY 101 Introduction to...

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Unformatted text preview: ANTHROPOLOGY 101: Introduction to Anthropology Unit 6: Homo Sapiens – Hunted stegodons, an extinct dwarf elephant weighing about a ton Archaic Homo Sapiens – 400,000-200,000 BP Homo erectus transformed into Homo sapiens – Change appears first in East & South Africa – Dating is difficult as this time range is below reliable range for potassium-argon and above that for radiocarbon – Archaic Homo sapiens retains many features of erectus : low forehead, brow ridges, weak chin, robust bones, etc. – Has modern cranial capacity (1125-1400 cc) Neanderthal – Best known archaic Homo sapiens is Neanderthal, though it is not typical – Other forms known in Asia & Africa – Developed in Europe after about 150,000 BP – Highly specialized adaptation to extreme cold of Ice Age Europe – Short & stocky with a large nose, very heavy bones & massively muscled – Could pass relatively unnoticed in modern population Culture – Gradual, but profound transformation – Was both more sedentary and more numerous than previously – Extreme cold in Europe may have contributed to sedentism – Levallois technique (prepared core) & blade technology – Produces lighter, sharper flake tools – Produces more blades/core (30" cutting edge vs. 12" for Acheulian) – Diversification of specialized tool types (knives, scrapers, gouges, wood cutting, axes, etc.) – Greater overall variability with more standardization of hunting tools over large areas – Hafting – increased efficiency – Mousterian & related traditions Mousterian Technologies Symbolic behavior – Religion – Deposition of animal bones – Burial – at least 17 sites – At Shanidar Cave with flowers & evergreen boughs, red ocher – Care for aged & infirm – original neandertal found was older, infirm who could not care for self – Carved teeth and other symbolic objects, often colored with Ocher or manganese dioxide – Possible bone Flute – Language – some controversy over position of hyoid bone in throat (mixed evidence), but the hypoglossal canal fully modern and unlike apes – Upper Paleolithic Neanderthals mimicked full modern cultural traits Evolutionary Trends – Cranial capacity continues to increase in archaic Homo sapiens – Reaches a peak of 1450cc in Neanderthals – Modern humans average around 1300-1350cc – No direct evidence for continued evolution of brains after archaic Homo sapiens – Some suggestions of evolution of brain organization from behavioral changes – At several points in evolutionary history there have been multiple hominids coexisting – Several australopithecines & Homo habilis – Robust australopithecines, Homo habilis, & Homo erectus – Homo erectus & archaic Homo sapiens – 200,000-35,000 BP - Archaic & modern Homo sapiens Cultural Evolution – Archaic Homo sapiens continue and expand on earlier trends – Improved lithic technologies – Greater standardization of tool types – Huge leaps in symbolic thought – Burial of dead –...
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This note was uploaded on 05/26/2011 for the course ANTH 101 taught by Professor Engelhart during the Spring '09 term at Montana.

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A101.06HomoSapiens - ANTHROPOLOGY 101 Introduction to...

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