A101.14ChngRel - ANTHROPOLOGY 101 Introduction to...

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ANTHROPOLOGY 101: Introduction to Anthropology Unit 14 Religion 0. Present in all cultures in the world 1. 2. For our purposes: 0. A people’s beliefs about & relations with the sacred or transcendent, however locally defined Functions of Religion 3. 4. System of Belief & System of Relations with Sacred 1. Provides explanation 2. Gives meaning 3. Confers values 5. It is a social institution as well 4. Offers comfort 5. Social charter 6. Social control 7. Social regulation Spiritual Agency 6. All religions believe in some sort of spiritual agency 7. This agency is often personalized 8. In some cases is purely impersonal 9. Impersonal 8. Mana 0. Sacred power which can be manipulated or used 9. Taboo 1. Sacred power which cannot be manipulated 10. Personal 10. Gods 2. Individual named spirits with distinct personalities and attributes 11. Spirits 3. Collective identities, names, and attributes Semi-Divine Beings 11. Many religions believe that there are other, material beings which partake of the sacred or divine in some degree 12. These semi-divine beings may be human(oid) or totally inhuman 13. Human 12. Culture Heroes 13. Prophets 14. Divine Kings 14. Inhuman 15. Monsters
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17. Sacred Animals Souls 15. Universal belief that there is an immaterial as well as material aspect to living creatures 16. Call this the soul 17. For some religions, only humans have souls 18. In many religions, all living things have souls 19. Some religions also believe that at least some inanimate objects may have souls 20. Variable in nature and number 18. Life Force 19. Immortal Souls 20. Reincarnated Souls 21. Transferable Souls 21. Not all peoples believe in an immortal soul 22. Soul not immortal 22. Navajo 23. Jivaro 23. Many peoples have weakly developed or inconsistent ideas of afterlife 24. Land of the dead 24. Burial goods 25. Differential outcomes 25. Heaven/Hell 26. Iroquois 27. Eskimo Beliefs in Afterlife 26. Reincarnation 27. Wandering Souls 28. Evil Ghosts Spirits of the Dead 29. Ancestors 28. Benevolent Dead who take an ongoing interest in the affairs of their living relatives 30. Ghosts 29. Malevolent or dangerous dead who harm the living Religious Practitioners 0. Religions differ in access to the sacred 1. In some, everyone has direct access to the sacred 2. In others, only full-time religious specialists have direct access 3. All religions have at least part-time religious specialists
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This note was uploaded on 05/26/2011 for the course ANTH 101 taught by Professor Engelhart during the Spring '09 term at Montana.

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A101.14ChngRel - ANTHROPOLOGY 101 Introduction to...

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