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MIdterm_study_guide - Geology 208 History of Earth System...

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Geology 208 History of Earth System Midterm Topics 1 Topics covered or emphasized in lecture Uniformitarianism and science Fundamental assumption Hutton, Lyell Curvier and Catastrophism Compostition of Earth: Four major cations and prominence of silicate minerals Mineralogy: Three ways to make minerals and corresponding rock types Polymorphs: diamond graphite, olivine to spinel in transition zone Diagnostic features from structure and composition Igneous Rocks questions can include: Undercooling and competition between nucleation and diffusion leading to growth rates. Glass vs. crystalline, course vs. fine Implication of a phenocryst Hypabyssal rocks and crystal size (diabasic texture) Sedimentary rocks: Diamict texture: glacial deposit (and Lahar) Chemical sed: BIF and LS (shallow tropical marine – Uniformitarianism) Metamorphic Rocks: Definition Polymorphism and why the transition zone and mesosphere are metamorphic
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