LectureCH2st - Chapter 2 Chapter ChildDevelopment This...

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Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Understanding and Studying  Child Development This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: •Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; •Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; •Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
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Scientific Theories Scientific Theories Are a set of ideas structured to organize  and explain facts. Fact: an objective statement of truth Give meaning to facts. Guide research.
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Theoretical Approaches Theoretical Approaches Biological Theories Ethological Theories Neurodevelopmental Approaches Psychoanalytic Theories Learning Theories Cognitive Theories Contextual Theories
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Biological Theories: Biological Theories: Evolutionary Theory Evolutionary Theory Focus on behaviors that promote survival  and reproduction Research areas include social behavior,  mate selection, language, reasoning  abilities, cooperation, etc. 
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Biological Theories: Biological Theories: Ethological Theory Ethological Theory Focus on  Causes and  adaptive value of  behaviors Cross-species  comparisons Considers  evolutionary  history of species  and social context
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Biological Theories: Biological Theories: Neurodevelopmental Approaches Neurodevelopmental Approaches Focus on the  relationship of brain  development to  behavior and thinking insert pic from page 33 1 st  ed. Add credit line: Doug  Plummer/Photo Researchers
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Psychoanalytic Theories Psychoanalytic Theories Common focus on unconscious drives and  forces Not commonly used in research
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Psychoanalytic Theories: Psychoanalytic Theories: Freud’s Psychosexual Theory Freud’s Psychosexual Theory Human behavior arises from the dynamic  internal energy resulting from biology The libido is the source of action and sexual  desire
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Psyche Psyche Id Primitive and instinctual component Operates via pleasure principle Ego source of reason operates via reality principle Superego conscience and moral standards
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Freud’s Psychosexual Theory Freud’s Psychosexual Theory Stage theory Important concepts Unconscious Defense mechanisms Psychoanalytic therapy Problems Not based on scientific evidence Not easily testable Culturally biased
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Psychoanalytic Theories: Psychoanalytic Theories: Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory Individuals go through a series of stages  representing psychosocial crises Crises represent critical periods in personality  development
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Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory Contributions Life span approach
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