Chapter 38-Nervous System

Chapter 38-Nervous System - Chapter 38: The Nervous System...

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Chapter 38: The Nervous System
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Nervous System Depends on organism In humans : brain , nerve cells ( neurons ) and spinal cord
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The Neuron Individual nerve cell Performs 4 functions: 1. Receives information 2. Integrates that info and produces an output signal 3. Sends that signal to its terminal ending 4. Transmits the signal to other nerve cells, glands or muscles
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Neuron Parts
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Dendrites Branches (provide large surface area ); where neuron receives information
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Dendrites Have protein receptors that produce electrical signals when transmitters bind or in response to specific stimuli like pressure, odor, light or heat.
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Cell body Where information is collected, processed Adds up the positive and negative signals from the dendrites. If positive, the neuron will produce neural activity or an an action potential (electrical signal)
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Conductor for neural activity or an action potential (electrical signal) Insulated for conduction (so energy is not lost) Can be long (up to a meter) Usually bundled (bundles = nerves) like an electrical cable Axon
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Myelin Insulation that wraps some axons Conducts signals more rapidly Slowly breakdown after the age 50 Diseases caused by demyelination: Huntington’s Disease, X- ALD (Adrenoleukodysrophy) Alzheimers (possibly), M.S. (multiple sclerosis)
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Synaptic Terminals Swellings at the branched endings of axons Junction between two cells Transmits the signal Meets up with another dendrite, muscle or gland
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Chapter 38-Nervous System - Chapter 38: The Nervous System...

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